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EST I – Literacy Test II 2021 M08 Academic Vocabulary

EST I – Literacy Test II 2021 M08 Academic Vocabulary

EST I – Literacy Test II 2021 M08 Academic Vocabulary


accompany[transitive verb]to go along with or come with (someone or something)
The boss accompanied the new employee to her workstation.
A teacher's manual accompanies the textbook.
acquaintance[noun]a person one has met but does not know well.
I have several acquaintances in this city but no real friends yet.
adjacent[adjective]near or next to; adjoining.
We are worried about the large dead tree on the property adjacent to ours; it could fall onto our house during a storm.
China is adjacent to India and many other countries.
aggression[noun]unprovoked hostile action against a country by another's military forces.
The nation retaliated for its neighbor's aggression by launching missiles.
allude[intransitive verb]to refer to indirectly or in passing (usually followed by "to").
We never discussed the issue of the inheritance, but she alluded to it several times that evening.
aloof[adverb]at a distance; apart.
He rarely attended parties, but even when he did, he stood aloof.
alteration[noun]the state or process of altering.
Making a movie out of the complicated novel required substantial alteration of the plot.
anomaly[noun]an act or instance of differing from the usual pattern, form, or type; peculiarity; abnormality.
The fact that our family did not own a car was an anomaly in the context of the neighborhood we lived in.
approximate[adjective]very close in accuracy; nearly exact or correct.
The final cost of the work was approximate to what we had been quoted.
The approximate distance between New York and California is three thousand miles.
audible[adjective]heard or able to be heard.
Some sounds are audible to animals but not to humans.
Is the sound of the traffic still audible in the house?
bequeath[transitive verb]to leave or dispose of (property) by a will.
He bequeathed his entire estate to his daughter.
comparative[adjective]gauged or estimated in relation to another or others;relative.
Although she has been training for five years, she is a comparative beginner.
conceal[transitive verb]to hide or keep hidden from sight.
He concealed the gift in his desk so that it would be a surprise.
This makeup is supposed to conceal your skin's flaws.
The safe is concealed behind that painting.
conclude[transitive verb]to bring to an end; finish or complete.
Let's conclude the meeting now and go to lunch.
The police are now concluding their investigation of the incident.
He's concluded his business in Washington and will be returning home.
considerably[adverb]to a quite large degree or extent.
A tiger is considerably bigger than a leopard.
His new film is considerably longer than his earlier ones.
consist[intransitive verb]to be composed or formed (usually followed by "of").
The United States consists of fifty states.
The test will consist of thirty questions.
Paper consists of small fibers, most often derived from wood pulp.
He felt his life consisted of nothing but struggle and failure.
contradict[transitive verb]to assert the opposite of; deny the truth of.
These two statements contradict each other, so I don't understand your point.
Unfortunately, the facts contradict your theory.
contrary[adjective]totally different; opposite.
You and I hold contrary views.
The two boys headed off in contrary directions.
contribute[transitive verb]to give individually or with others to a common fund or collective effort (often followed by "to").
They contributed considerable funds to the campaign to save the old movie theater from destruction.
I'm happy to contribute my time and effort to such a good cause.
We contributed a fair amount to the governor's election campaign last year..
coup[noun]a brilliant and successful action or maneuver.
His breaking of the Nazi codes was a great coup.
credible[adjective]believable or plausible.
The teacher allowed him to make up the exam because she thought his excuse was credible.
daunt[transitive verb]to lessen the determination of; intimidate; discourage.
The size of the task daunted him, and he decided to reconsider.
Though the challenge was great, they were not daunted by it.
detachment[noun]a feeling or condition of being impartial or uninvolved.
The judge listened to both sides of the story with appropriate detachment.
deviation[noun]difference or divergence, as from a typical pattern, accepted social norms, political orthodoxy, or the like.
The critics said the theme of her new book represented a deviation from her standard themes.
diminution[noun]the act, process, or result of decreasing or declining.
The diminution in the number of deer in the region has yet to be explained.
dismal[adjective]cheerless or depressing; gloomy.
The room was dismal, with tiny windows, filthy curtains, and gray walls.
She complained of the region's dismal climate.
Visiting him in the field hospital was a dismal experience.
displace[transitive verb]to force out of a homeland or established place.
The war displaced thousands of families.
distribute[transitive verb]to divide into parts and give out to each of several people, groups, or the like.
Charities distribute food and medical supplies to people who are in need.
divergence[noun]the act of separating and moving or leading in different directions.
The divergence of species sometimes begins when some members of a species become geographically separated from other members.
the divergence of the two roads.
divert[transitive verb]to turn aside or away from something; deflect.
duration[noun]the interval of time during which something exists or proceeds.
He slept for most of the duration of the opera.
employ[transitive verb]to make use of; use.
We're studying the unique devices he employs in his poetry.
You would have to employ a microscope to be able to see these organisms.
evolve[intransitive verb]to develop gradually; come into being.
The revolution evolved during years of suffering.
The plan evolved over many weeks of discussion.
familiarity[noun]knowledge or understanding of a particular thing.
His familiarity with a number of languages helped him in his foreign travels.
formidable[adjective]exceptionally difficult; daunting.
Building the pyramids was a formidable task.
foster[transitive verb]to encourage and aid the growth or development of.
Her parents fostered her dream of going to the Olympics.
Unfair treatment tends to foster anger and hatred.
furnish[transitive verb]to equip, especially with furniture.
The newlyweds are busy furnishing their new apartment.
Their house is furnished with expensive antiques.
glacial[adjective]of, concerning, coming from, or marked by the presence of glaciers or other large ice masses.
a glacial era.
graphic[adjective]of or related to pictorial or typographical representations such as photography, painting, and printing.
He is responsible for the graphic design of the magazine.
haunt[transitive verb]to come persistently and painfully to the mind or memory of.
The tragic scene still haunts her.
What happened was an accident, but the woman's death haunted him forever.
hypothetical[adjective]based on a premise rather than having substance in reality; supposed.
In medical school, we were often quizzed about hypothetical patients and how we would treat them.
ignite[transitive verb]to cause to begin burning; set on fire; kindle.
He ignited the charcoal with his lighter.
illustrate[transitive verb]to explain or clarify by giving examples or presenting a graphic representation.
My father always used examples from his own life experience to illustrate his point.
The gym teacher illustrated how the move should be done by demonstrating it herself.
The drawing on the opposite page helped illustrate the concept.
impel[transitive verb]to drive or incite to action.
The final pay cut impelled the workers to go on strike.
imply[transitive verb]to signal (a meaning) without directly stating such meaning; suggest.
Are you implying that I cheated?
She agreed to do it, but her tone implied resentment.
When she told him he dropped his candy wrapper, she was implying that he should pick it up.
These symptoms may imply a weak heart.
impress1[transitive verb]to make a strong impact on (someone), especially a positive impact.
The tremendous size of the structure impressed us greatly.
The new student's talent impressed the piano teacher.
He is trying to impress her with his wealth.
inaccurate[adjective]not correct, true, or precise.
indifference[noun]lack of interest, especially when interest is called for,expected, or hoped for.
When their elderly mother began to show indifference toward the things she had always cared about, the family began to worry about her.
He was excited about his proposal, but it was met with indifference at the committee meeting.
She infatuated with him, but his attitude toward her was one of complete indifference.
infer[transitive verb]to conclude or determine on the basis of evidence or logical premises.
I inferred his motives from the manner in which he made his request.
Seeing the large number of books in her room, I inferred that she was an avid reader.
From her sarcastic tone, he inferred that she was not pleased to see him.
When the interviewer said she was by far the best applicant for the job, she inferred that she would be given it.
innate[adjective]belonging to or existing in someone or some organism from the time of birth; inborn.
Shyness may be an innate characteristic in some human beings.
innumerable[adjective]very many.
He'd had innumerable injuries during his career in football but none as serious as this.
insert[transitive verb]to put or cause to be put in, into, or within.
Did anyone insert the plug into the socket?
I inserted four quarters in the parking meter, but nothing happened!
They were talking so fast that I couldn't insert my opinion.
I think you should insert more details into this paragraph.
inspire[transitive verb]to arouse feelings of exaltation in.
The music of Bach and Mozart continues to inspire us even after more than two hundred years.
intention[noun]a decided course of action; plan.
She went to college with the intention of studying biology.
intimacy[noun]the condition of being close in friendship or otherwise intimate.
She was a reserved person who never developed much intimacy with anyone, but this time she needed someone to confide in.
intrigue[transitive verb]to strongly draw the interest of; puzzle; fascinate.
The odd fairy tale intrigued the child.
invoice[noun]a detailed statement of goods sold or shipped or of services provided, including their prices or charges.
The restaurant owner complained that he had not received some of the items listed on the supply company's invoice.
The plumber did not accept payment for the job but told the customer that she would receive an invoice from the company.
inward[adverb]in or toward the inside or center.
laborious[adjective]requiring considerable effort or perseverance.
Hanging wallpaper is a laborious task.
literacy[noun]ability to read or write.
Literacy is a primary goal of the educational system.
The rate of literacy varies from nation to nation.
misjudge[transitive verb]to hold an unjustified opinion (of).
I apologize, as I seem to have misjudged you.
momentary[adjective]lasting only a moment.
naive[adjective]simple, natural, and unsophisticated; lacking in suspicion.
Because children are naive, it is both easy and wrong to take advantage of them.
notwithstanding[preposition]in spite of; despite.
Notwithstanding his parents objections; he moved out of the house that night.
Her fears notwithstanding, she went ahead with her decision.
objectivity[noun]the quality of being unbiased or without prejudice.
I trust this news show because it reports the news with more objectivity than the others.
observable[adjective]able to be seen; visible.
After using the anti-wrinkle cream for several weeks, there was still no observable difference in her skin.
outbreak[noun]a sudden appearance or increase in activity or strength, especially of disease.
patina[noun]a greenish, brownish, or reddish crust or film produced by oxidation on the surface of old metals such as bronze and copper.
The bronze sculpture developed a green patina over time.
penetrate[transitive verb]to pierce or go into or through; enter or pass through the interior of.
He jumped a little when the needle penetrated his skin.
The explorers penetrated the jungle.
perception[noun]the ability to know through the senses.
permeable[adjective]of a substance, being such that gas or liquid can penetrate or diffuse through it.
The cell membrane is permeable to water molecules.
precede[transitive verb]to come before in time.
January precedes February.
Our flight preceded theirs by two hours.
Baseball games are usually preceded by the singing of the national anthem.
projection[noun]an estimation of future situations based on an examination of the present.
proportion[noun]a part or fraction of a whole.
What proportion of the students require special assistance?
A large proportion of the forest will be cut down.
purely[adverb]merely; only.
It was purely accidental that we met.
radiant[adjective]emitting heat or rays of light.
These lamps are highly radiant, so be careful you don't get a burn.
rebuttal[noun]a statement or contention, as in a debate or legal case, that is intended to disprove or confute another.
His rebuttal was unconvincing because he failed to give any clear evidence to refute his opponent's argument.
receptive[adjective]open and willing to accommodate new thoughts and ideas.
Her mother was surprisingly receptive to the idea of having the wedding outdoors.
redirect[transitive verb]to guide to a different destination or by a different route.
Because of the storm, their flight was redirected to St. Louis.
refract[transitive verb]to bend (rays or waves of light, heat, sound, or the like) in passing (them) obliquely from one medium into another which transmits them at a different speed.
The rays of light are refracted by the prism.
refraction[noun]the bending of rays or waves of light, heat, sound, or the like when passed obliquely from one medium to another with a different rate of transmission.
Because of refraction, objects appear different when you look at them through a substance like water.
refute[transitive verb]to demonstrate the falseness or error of; disprove.
She refuted his argument with some well-documented evidence.
render[transitive verb]to cause to become; make.
He tried to escape, but his broken leg rendered him helpless.
The accident rendered her a quadriplegic.
Beating the cream longer will render it butter.
resolve[transitive verb]to decide (something) firmly or earnestly, or to cause (someone) to do so.
Many of us resolve to exercise more at the beginning of each new year.
I resolved that I would never let myself be so deceived again.
The attack on Pearl Harbor resolved the United States to enter World War II.
seclude[transitive verb]to cause to be kept away from other people or activity.
The police secluded the witness for her protection.
situate[transitive verb]to put in a particular place or position; place or locate.
The house is situated on a busy road
He is well situated to take advantage of any opportunity.
spite[noun]the malicious wish to hurt, bother, or humiliate someone.
stratum[noun]a level in a social hierarchy.
Those belonging to the lowest stratum of society were most likely to be convicted of crimes they were innocent of.
subjective[adjective]affected or shaped by personal experience, beliefs, and feelings.
Good jurors will try not to be subjective.
subsidiary[adjective]assisting or supplementing.
The medical research program has a subsidiary organization for fund-raising.
summarize[transitive verb]to be a concise statement of.
This paragraph summarizes our position.
symmetry[noun]a state in which parts on opposite sides of a plane, line, or point display the same size, form, or arrangement.
Symmetry is a hallmark of this type of architecture.
torpid[adjective]dormant or inactive, as in hibernation.
The torpid bear will remain in its hollow for at least another month.
troublesome[adjective]causing anxiety, worry, or bother.
Her most troublesome student was expelled for defacing school property.
undaunted[adjective]not discouraged or dismayed; resolute or fearless.
There were many setbacks, but the undaunted suffragettes carried on their fight for the vote.
Undaunted, he proposed marriage to her again and again.
unnecessary[adjective]not required or essential; needless.
It's unnecessary to buy a new one if there's nothing wrong with the old one.
The more expensive models have unnecessary features.
variation[noun]the act or process of changing, or the condition of being changeable.
During the spring, there is a great deal of variation in the temperature.
vital[adjective]pertaining to or characteristic of life.
The nurse checked the patient's heartbeat and other vital signs.
withdraw[transitive verb]to take back, out, or away; remove.
The carpenter withdrew the nails from the old boards.
He withdrew all his money from his savings account.
The general made the decision to withdraw the troops from the area.
withstand[transitive verb]to resist or stand up to; prevail against, bear, or survive.
The boat was sturdy enough to withstand the storm.
She withstood the pressure from her family to eat unhealthy things.
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