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EST I – Literacy Test II 2021 M06 Academic Vocabulary

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EST I – Literacy Test II 2021 M06 Academic Vocabulary

EST I – Literacy Test II 2021 M06 Academic Vocabulary


accord[noun]balanced interrelationship; agreement; harmony.
In accord with tradition, the bride wore white.
acute[adjective]of great severity or intensity.
The patient is experiencing acute pain in the abdomen.
When the hunger pangs became acute, she allowed herself to eat a little.
adorn[transitive verb]to beautify, as with ornaments.
She adorns herself with rings and bracelets.
The house was adorned with flowers for the party.
advantageous[adjective]offering benefit, gain, or profit.
Having experience in that particular area put her in an advantageous position.
Fluency in another language can be advantageous in the job market.
The hotel's being near the new convention center will be extremely advantageous.
The fog turned out to be advantageous to the advancing army, making its movement invisible to the enemy.
angular[adjective]having a bony structure, as a person's body.
He's thin and has an angular build.
anthropology[noun]the scientific study of mankind, especially its origins, development, social customs and structures, and cultures.
The study of kinship is an area of anthropology that I find interesting.
approximate[adjective]very close in accuracy; nearly exact or correct.
The final cost of the work was approximate to what we had been quoted.
The approximate distance between New York and California is three thousand miles.
argumentative[adjective]given to quarrels, debate, or violent clashes of opinion, often without a cause; contentious.
They were an argumentative couple, but they always seemed to work things out in the end.
aristocracy[noun]a high-ranking social class, having special privileges and influence and usually determined by heredity.
She was born into the aristocracy and was expected to marry someone of her own class.
civilization[noun]an advanced state of development of a society as judged by such things as having a complex system of government and laws, use of a written language, and the keeping of written records.
Fertile land and an abundant water supply were what made civilization possible in the region.
commentary[noun]a series of explanatory or interpretive remarks or comments.
We listened to commentary on the works of art as we went through the museum.
commerce[noun]the exchange of goods or services for money; business transactions.
The trade agreement is expected to increase commerce between the two nations.
The old marketplace is still a center of commerce in the city.
complementary[adjective]acting or serving to complete; completing.
The suit includes a skirt and complementary jacket.
The roasted potatoes are complementary to the steak dinner.
condense[transitive verb]to make smaller, denser, or more compact; compress; concentrate.
They condensed the milk so that it could be stored for long periods.
considerably[adverb]to a quite large degree or extent.
A tiger is considerably bigger than a leopard.
His new film is considerably longer than his earlier ones.
consist[intransitive verb]to be composed or formed (usually followed by "of").
The United States consists of fifty states.
The test will consist of thirty questions.
Paper consists of small fibers, most often derived from wood pulp.
He felt his life consisted of nothing but struggle and failure.
constrict[transitive verb]to pull or squeeze in; make narrower or smaller; tighten.
Fear constricted her throat.
construct[transitive verb]to put together by assembling component parts; build.
The new library will be constructed on the site of the old one.
The students constructed models of various molecules.
contradict[transitive verb]to assert the opposite of; deny the truth of.
These two statements contradict each other, so I don't understand your point.
Unfortunately, the facts contradict your theory.
contribute[transitive verb]to give individually or with others to a common fund or collective effort (often followed by "to").
They contributed considerable funds to the campaign to save the old movie theater from destruction.
I'm happy to contribute my time and effort to such a good cause.
We contributed a fair amount to the governor's election campaign last year..
contribution[noun]that which is contributed.
convex[adjective]having a surface or outer edge that curves outward like the outside of a ball. (Cf. concave.)
curvature[noun]the condition of being bent or rounded.
The doctor examined the child to see if there was any marked curvature of her spine.
She admired the beautiful curvature of the wood.
derive[transitive verb]to obtain or extract from an original source (usually followed by "from").
Many medicines have ingredients that are derived from plants.
From what source did you derive that information?
diffuse[intransitive verb]in the physical sciences, to flow toward regions of lower concentration.
The drop of dye diffused in the water.
diminution[noun]the act, process, or result of decreasing or declining.
The diminution in the number of deer in the region has yet to be explained.
discount[noun]an amount or percentage deducted from the full or standard price or cost.
The store is offering discounts on many types of merchandise this week.
disposition[noun]a predominant or prevailing mood or temperament, as of a person or the weather.
The little girl has a sweet disposition and is easy to care for.
duration[noun]the interval of time during which something exists or proceeds.
He slept for most of the duration of the opera.
dynasty[noun]a succession, lasting several generations, of rulers from the same family or group.
embrace[noun]an act or instance of clasping or holding someone in one's arms; hug.
She felt happy in his embrace.
employ[transitive verb]to make use of; use.
We're studying the unique devices he employs in his poetry.
You would have to employ a microscope to be able to see these organisms.
enact[transitive verb]to make into a law.
equivalent[adjective]the same as or equal to another in force, value, measure, or meaning.
Her punishment didn't seem equivalent to mine.
Do you think the education you would receive at the state school would be equivalent to what you would receive at this private school?
An inch is equivalent to 2.54 centimeters.
"House" in English is usually equivalent to Spanish "casa."
exterior[adjective]on or related to the outside or outer side.
galvanize[transitive verb]to stimulate into awareness or activity.
The impending war galvanized the nation's industries.
gauge[transitive verb]to make an estimate of or a judgment concerning; judge.
The speaker incorrectly gauged the reactions of his audience.
It is impossible to gauge the size of an iceberg by looking at the part that is above water.
The engineers gauged the bridge to be safe.
graphic[adjective]of or related to pictorial or typographical representations such as photography, painting, and printing.
He is responsible for the graphic design of the magazine.
hypocrisy[noun]the practice or an instance of stating or pretending to hold beliefs or principles that one does not actually live by; insincerity.
The congregation could forgive the minister his misdeeds but not the hypocrisy of his sternly moralizing sermons.
ignorant[adjective]lacking knowledge or education.
It is easier for corrupt leaders to control an ignorant population.
Many of the children grow up ignorant because they have no access to schools.
imperceptible[adjective]so gradual or subtle as to be unnoticed or unnoticeable.
The difference in taste was so slight as to be almost imperceptible.
incandescent[adjective]giving off light as a result of heating.
They are replacing their incandescent light bulbs with fluorescent bulbs as an energy-saving measure.
indignation[noun]righteous anger in response to something considered unjust or unworthy.
The insult to her family and her countrymen filled her with indignation.
indirect[adjective]not in a straight line, course, or route.
indiscriminate[adjective]lacking in judgment and discernment; making no distinctions.
Their indiscriminate obedience caused them to carry out inhuman acts.
indulge[intransitive verb]to yield to or gratify a desire, appetite, or whim (usually followed by "in").
We were avoiding desserts generally, but the weather was so hot that we indulged in some ice cream.
infer[transitive verb]to conclude or determine on the basis of evidence or logical premises.
I inferred his motives from the manner in which he made his request.
Seeing the large number of books in her room, I inferred that she was an avid reader.
From her sarcastic tone, he inferred that she was not pleased to see him.
When the interviewer said she was by far the best applicant for the job, she inferred that she would be given it.
inferior[adjective]subordinate in rank, position, or degree.
Compared with a general, a captain is an inferior officer.
insert[transitive verb]to put or cause to be put in, into, or within.
Did anyone insert the plug into the socket?
I inserted four quarters in the parking meter, but nothing happened!
They were talking so fast that I couldn't insert my opinion.
I think you should insert more details into this paragraph.
intention[noun]a decided course of action; plan.
She went to college with the intention of studying biology.
interval[noun]the period of time between two events or situations.
He was born during the interval between the two world wars.
irregular[adjective]uneven in shape, arrangement, surface, or the like.
These handmade bowls are slightly irregular in shape.
The wall has an irregular surface.
isolate[transitive verb]to set apart from other things or people.
The police isolated the murder suspect from the other prisoners.
We think we have isolated the single cause of this disease.
The island people are isolated from the mainland population.
legislator[noun]someone who makes laws, especially a member of a legislative body.
The legislators passed the bill in the House of Representatives.
legislature[noun]a governmental assembly authorized to make, change, or revoke the laws of a state or nation.
The legislature is voting today on the proposal to change the tax laws.
literacy[noun]ability to read or write.
Literacy is a primary goal of the educational system.
The rate of literacy varies from nation to nation.
maxim[noun]a brief, concise statement of a general or basic truth or rule, especially for proper conduct.
My grandmother's favorite maxim was "A child should be seen and not heard."
monumental[adjective]massive, imposing, or extremely conspicuous.
The newscaster's error was so monumental that the network received thousands of calls.
notwithstanding[preposition]in spite of; despite.
Notwithstanding his parents objections; he moved out of the house that night.
Her fears notwithstanding, she went ahead with her decision.
optimism[noun]the belief that everything will turn out well, or that there are good aspects of every situation. (Cf. pessimism.)
He was always surprised at her optimism considering all the misfortunes that she had experienced in her life.
ornamentation[noun]decoration; embellishment.
Cathedrals built in the Baroque style were rich with ornamentation.
persuasive[adjective]having the ability to cause another to do or believe something.
A few more citations of evidence will make your paper more persuasive.
She made a persuasive argument for raising the drinking age.
He was very persuasive, and soon she was dancing with him.
There is little persuasive evidence to support the claim that the product actually works.
pictorial[adjective]pertaining to, made of, or containing drawings, paintings, or photographs.
He has considerable pictorial skill but his drawings lack imagination.
placement[noun]the act of placing or state of being placed; location.
the placement of the windows in a room.
ponder[intransitive verb]to think about something deeply and carefully; meditate.
preliminary[adjective]coming before, especially in preparation for, something else.
Our team lost in the preliminary round and won't be going to the final competition.
The school principal made some preliminary remarks before the guest speaker addressed the students.
I did poorly on the preliminary exam, so I'll have to study harder for the final.
premonition[noun]an advance sign or warning; forewarning.
Smoke in the weeks before was a premonition of the volcano's eruption.
preoccupy[transitive verb]to absorb the entire time or attention of.
His experiments in the laboratory preoccupied him, and there were many nights when he did not return home.
prevalent[adjective]generally accepted; pervasive; widespread.
These surgical techniques were already prevalent at the turn of the century.
That a woman's proper place was in the home was a prevalent attitude during the 1950s.
proportion[noun]a part or fraction of a whole.
What proportion of the students require special assistance?
A large proportion of the forest will be cut down.
reasonable[adjective]in accordance with clear thinking and good judgment.
refute[transitive verb]to demonstrate the falseness or error of; disprove.
She refuted his argument with some well-documented evidence.
replica[noun]a duplication or copy, especially one smaller than the original.
A replica of the famous airplane hangs in the museum.
reprimand[noun]a strong, usually formal statement of disapproval; rebuke.
The police officer received a severe reprimand from his superior, but he wasn't suspended.
requisite[adjective]required or essential.
If you've done the requisite reading and assignments, you should pass the exam easily.
residue[noun]a substance or quantity that remains after a part has been removed or after a process has been completed.
We removed the old tape from the edges of the windows, but now there is a sticky residue on the glass.
sculpture[noun]any such artistic image.
seclude[transitive verb]to cause to be kept away from other people or activity.
The police secluded the witness for her protection.
secrete1[transitive verb]to generate or separate (a fluid or other substance) from an organism's cells or fluids and then release (it) into the organism's system.
sector[noun]an identifiable segment or part of a landscape, area, society, political system, or the like.
We were not allowed to enter the Russian sector of the city without authorization.
Jobs will have to come from the private sector of employment.
sole1[adjective]single and alone, not one among others; only.
She was the sole survivor of the crash.
Was that the sole reason you came here?
Revenge was their sole aim in committing this terrible crime.
The machine's sole function is to clean the air.
soluble[adjective]able to be dissolved.
Sugar is more quickly soluble in warm water than in cold.
specify[transitive verb]to name or otherwise indicate explicitly.
She specified her niece as the heir to her fortune.
Did he specify which brand of coffee he wanted?
spite[noun]the malicious wish to hurt, bother, or humiliate someone.
successive[adjective]following in sequential order; consecutive.
With each successive draft, the essay made its point more concisely and effectively.
The food writer ate at the restaurant on three successive nights to get an accurate picture of its quality.
summarize[transitive verb]to be a concise statement of.
This paragraph summarizes our position.
superficial[adjective]of, pertaining to, or located on the surface.
The cut was only superficial and didn't require a bandage.
surmount[transitive verb]to get over or past; overcome; conquer.
These were difficult problems, but with effort, we surmounted them.
systematic[adjective]involving or based on a method or plan; not random or chaotic.
Presentation of concepts in the textbook is systematic.
threshold[noun]the beginning of a new event, undertaking, or the like.
Poor leadership has brought the two countries to the threshold of war.
Having completed his degree, he was now on the threshold of a new life.
transmit[transitive verb]to send or convey from a source to a destination.
The message was transmitted by wire from London to Paris.
We need to transmit this information to our regional office.
trivial[adjective]having little value or importance; insignificant.
There had been a few trivial complaints, but most people seemed to be happy with the library's renovation.
After reading many trivial student essays, the instructor was pleased to find one with a good deal of substance.
She thought her symptoms were trivial and had not believed it necessary to see a doctor.
tyrannical[adjective]imposing one's will on others by threat or force; despotic; oppressive.
The tyrannical king forced the nobles to give up much of their land.
Our tyrannical office manager won't even allow us to get a new pencil without asking.
tyranny[noun]a government in which a single person rules absolutely and despotically.
Under the tyranny of the dictator, thousands of innocent people were unlawfully imprisoned or killed.
unnecessary[adjective]not required or essential; needless.
It's unnecessary to buy a new one if there's nothing wrong with the old one.
The more expensive models have unnecessary features.
unpredictable[adjective]not able to be known beforehand.
The cape is known for unpredictable winds.
Attacks of these animals are often unpredictable.
The encountered some unpredictable obstacles in their explorations.
usage[noun]the way or amount of using or treating something, or the acts of using something viewed collectively.
Electricity usage has increased this month.
His little car has had a lot of rough usage.
vagrant[noun]one who lacks a permanent home and wanders from place to place; nomad; tramp.
Vagrants are camping under the bridge to shelter themselves from rain.
volatile[adjective]rapidly changeable, especially tending to become violent.
His volatile temper put everyone on edge.
Stay tuned to this channel for updates on this volatile situation.
withstand[transitive verb]to resist or stand up to; prevail against, bear, or survive.
The boat was sturdy enough to withstand the storm.
She withstood the pressure from her family to eat unhealthy things.
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