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EST I – Literacy Test II 2021 M05 Academic Vocabulary

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EST I – Literacy Test II 2021 M05 Academic Vocabulary

EST I – Literacy Test II 2021 M05 Academic Vocabulary


absolve[transitive verb]to free from consequences, blame, or guilt.
Although the court had absolved him of the crime, society still held him responsible.
accord[noun]balanced interrelationship; agreement; harmony.
In accord with tradition, the bride wore white.
agitation[noun]the condition of being stirred up; turmoil or disturbance.
The suspect's agitation increased when the officers began to question him about his past.
allude[intransitive verb]to refer to indirectly or in passing (usually followed by "to").
We never discussed the issue of the inheritance, but she alluded to it several times that evening.
anticipate[transitive verb]to look forward to; expect.
We anticipated a pleasant outing in the country.
The children always anticipate a present from their father when he returns from a trip.
She anticipated being blissfully happy in her marriage, but she was disappointed.
append[transitive verb]to add, especially as something extra at the end of a text.
She appended statistical tables to the article.
assail[transitive verb]to attack with vigor or violence; assault.
Loud music assailed our ears.
She was assailed by a gang of ruffians.
austerity[noun]a tightened or stringent economy, as when there are high taxes, frozen wages, and shortages of consumer goods.
Greece must implement austerity measures in order to receive the loan from the European Union.
bolster[transitive verb]to give support with a cushion or pillow.
The patient's back was bolstered so he could read in bed.
capitalist[noun]one who supports an economic system in which the means of production and distribution are privately owned, and prices are chiefly determined by open competition in a free market.
He was a capitalist and strongly opposed to Marxism.
charitable[adjective]generous in donations or benevolent actions for needy persons.
She is a wealthy and charitable woman who gives both time and money to help others.
circumstance[noun]an occurrence or fact associated with or having an impact on an event or situation.
What were the circumstances of his arrest?
The circumstances surrounding his death are still being investigated.
civilize[transitive verb]to bring to an educated or refined condition; cause impulsive or destructive behavior to be voluntarily restrained.
They found a wild, mute child who had been living in a cave, and they attempted to civilize him.
commodity[noun]a product, as opposed to a service, that can be bought and sold, especially an agricultural or mining product.
Sugar produced from sugar cane became a valuable commodity during the time of European colonization.
compassion[noun]a feeling of sharing another's suffering, prompting a desire to relieve that suffering; commiseration; clemency.
Her compassion for the orphans led her to look for ways to help them.
The ship's captain was a brutal man with no compassion.
compel[transitive verb]to force or drive to some action or attitude; pressure.
The customer's violent behavior compelled the store manager to call the police.
A terrible sense of guilt compelled him to confess.
conceal[transitive verb]to hide or keep hidden from sight.
He concealed the gift in his desk so that it would be a surprise.
This makeup is supposed to conceal your skin's flaws.
The safe is concealed behind that painting.
conclude[transitive verb]to bring to an end; finish or complete.
Let's conclude the meeting now and go to lunch.
The police are now concluding their investigation of the incident.
He's concluded his business in Washington and will be returning home.
condemn[transitive verb]to express extreme disapproval of; declare to be wrong, inadequate, or evil.
In tonight's speech, the mayor condemned the recent acts of violence that have occurred in the city.
congregate[transitive verb | intransitive verb]to bring or come together to form a group or assembly; gather.
considerably[adverb]to a quite large degree or extent.
A tiger is considerably bigger than a leopard.
His new film is considerably longer than his earlier ones.
contradict[transitive verb]to assert the opposite of; deny the truth of.
These two statements contradict each other, so I don't understand your point.
Unfortunately, the facts contradict your theory.
contrary[adjective]totally different; opposite.
You and I hold contrary views.
The two boys headed off in contrary directions.
copious[adjective]abundant in number or quantity; plentiful.
She knew the boy was hungry and gave him a copious serving of potatoes.
correspond[intransitive verb]to communicate by writing letters, especially over a period of time.
My father corresponded with his brother all his life.
credible[adjective]believable or plausible.
The teacher allowed him to make up the exam because she thought his excuse was credible.
decline[transitive verb]to refuse (to do or to give something).
The mayor declined to be interviewed.
The candidate declined to predict the outcome of the election.
The reporters asked the actress about the incident, but she declined comment.
demeanor[noun]the way in which one conducts oneself; deportment.
The calm demeanor of the flight attendants comforted the passengers.
His stern demeanor suggested that he would tolerate no nonsense.
We could see from the doctor's demeanor that the operation had gone well.
derive[transitive verb]to obtain or extract from an original source (usually followed by "from").
Many medicines have ingredients that are derived from plants.
From what source did you derive that information?
dimension[noun]size as measured in a particular direction such as height, width, or depth.
The potential buyers asked about the dimensions of the living room.
discourse[noun]verbal communication; conversation.
Asking questions is part of typical discourse.
I'm sure we'll have further discourse on this subject at our next meeting.
discredit[transitive verb]to harm the reputation of.
His opponent did her best to discredit him by bringing up embarrassing incidents from his past.
duration[noun]the interval of time during which something exists or proceeds.
He slept for most of the duration of the opera.
dwell[intransitive verb]to think about, be concerned with, or remain attentive to (a particular thing) at length or habitually (often followed by "on" or "upon").
Let's not dwell on this point
You must not dwell on past failures.
edifice[noun]a building, especially a large or impressive structure.
The old newspaper building was a lofty edifice in its time.
empathy[noun]identification with or sharing of another's feelings, situation, or attitudes.
The play didn't interest him as he could not feel empathy with characters having such great wealth and high social status.
encompass[transitive verb]to surround or enclose.
A large, new stadium encompasses the playing field.
Several layers of atmosphere encompass the planet.
engross[transitive verb]to interest or occupy fully to the exclusion of all else.
He was apparently engrossed by the television and didn't acknowledge my arrival.
err[intransitive verb]to make a mistake.
She was very particular about choosing gifts, and she rarely erred in her judgment.
exemplify[transitive verb]to serve as an illustration of.
What happened last night exemplifies why people in this neighborhood are afraid.
expeditious[adjective]prompt and efficient.
She thanked the messenger for his expeditious service.
extract[noun]a condensation and concentration of a substance.
The coffee bread is flavored with almond extract.
facilitate[transitive verb]to make less difficult; help in progress.
Her guidance counselor's advice facilitated her college application process.
His business connections facilitated his finding a new job.
The ramp facilitates entry for people who use wheelchairs.
financier[noun]a person skilled in or occupied in financial operations, usually on a large scale.
A number of high-powered financiers appear interested in backing the project.
forestall[transitive verb]to prevent or hinder by taking action beforehand.
The company laid off workers in an attempt to forestall bankruptcy.
fuse2[intransitive verb]to become merged by or as if by melting together; amalgamate; coalesce.
The copper and zinc fused and became brass.
The flavors fuse as the dish cooks, and the result is extraordinary.
garment[noun]any piece of clothing.
Our factory produces men's garments, particularly shirts and pajamas.
The emperor's garments were made of pure silk.
This dress is a poorly-made garment.
graphic[adjective]of or related to pictorial or typographical representations such as photography, painting, and printing.
He is responsible for the graphic design of the magazine.
heterodox[adjective]deviating from an officially approved belief or doctrine, especially in religion.
Once her heterodox views on global warming came to light, she was viewed warily by the more conformist members of her circle.
historian[noun]one who writes about or is an expert on history.
illustrate[transitive verb]to explain or clarify by giving examples or presenting a graphic representation.
My father always used examples from his own life experience to illustrate his point.
The gym teacher illustrated how the move should be done by demonstrating it herself.
The drawing on the opposite page helped illustrate the concept.
inclusive[adjective]comprising or covering a great deal; comprehensive.
The textbook has a highly inclusive index that is very helpful.
indication[noun]anything that serves as a sign or signal.
indifference[noun]lack of interest, especially when interest is called for,expected, or hoped for.
When their elderly mother began to show indifference toward the things she had always cared about, the family began to worry about her.
He was excited about his proposal, but it was met with indifference at the committee meeting.
She infatuated with him, but his attitude toward her was one of complete indifference.
indubitable[adjective]without question; certain.
That there will be another eruption of the volcano is indubitable; the question is when.
infamy[noun]evil or shameful reputation.
The infamy of the Nazi Party still endures.
The teacher, having been accused of inappropriate behavior with students, resigned in infamy.
The infamy that surrounded her strongly persisted despite her having been acquitted of the murder.
infer[transitive verb]to conclude or determine on the basis of evidence or logical premises.
I inferred his motives from the manner in which he made his request.
Seeing the large number of books in her room, I inferred that she was an avid reader.
From her sarcastic tone, he inferred that she was not pleased to see him.
When the interviewer said she was by far the best applicant for the job, she inferred that she would be given it.
invariably[adverb]without ever a change; on every occasion.
Invariably, you're on hold for ages before you can get through to make an appointment.
She's invariably late to work on Mondays.
isolate[transitive verb]to set apart from other things or people.
The police isolated the murder suspect from the other prisoners.
We think we have isolated the single cause of this disease.
The island people are isolated from the mainland population.
jargon1[noun]technical or specialized words or language, as of a science or profession, sometimes considered to be unnecessary or confusing.
To be a successful lawyer you have to know all the legal jargon.
"A can of corn" is baseball jargon for a fly ball that is easy to catch.
justify[transitive verb]to demonstrate (something) to be true or valid.
You'll need solid evidence to justify your claim.
legislature[noun]a governmental assembly authorized to make, change, or revoke the laws of a state or nation.
The legislature is voting today on the proposal to change the tax laws.
literacy[noun]ability to read or write.
Literacy is a primary goal of the educational system.
The rate of literacy varies from nation to nation.
misunderstand[transitive verb | intransitive verb]to fail to comprehend correctly; interpret wrongly.
mock[transitive verb]to express scorn or contempt for; ridicule; deride.
The candidate mocked his opponent's stand on the environment.
Many physicians originally mocked the notion that disease could be caused by microbes.
nurture[transitive verb]to care for and encourage the growth and development of (a living thing).
She carefully nurtured her tiny plants.
It was really our grandparents who nurtured us; our parents were unable to do that.
oblige[transitive verb]to cause to feel bound to do something or to act in a certain way.
His conscience obliged him to take care of his elderly parents despite the hardship it involved.
Being given the job by his friend obliged him in a way that was uncomfortable for him.
obnoxious[adjective]extremely unpleasant or irritating.
A skunk gives off an obnoxious odor to defend itself.
We were tired of the obnoxious behavior of these spoiled children.
It is obnoxious of you to keep interrupting.
output[noun]the quantity produced, especially in a given time period.
The company's yearly output has increased dramatically due to the new machinery.
paraphrase[noun]a restatement of a passage or text in somewhat different words so as to simplify, clarify, or amplify.
The teacher used a paraphrase to help the students understand what Shakespeare meant in those two lines.
perception[noun]the ability to know through the senses.
pertain[intransitive verb]to relate or refer to something; have to do with.
The captain knows everything that pertains to the operation of the ship.
My question pertains to the speaker's first point.
This matter doesn't pertain to you, so I'll ask you to please leave the room.
Please bring all the documents that pertain to the case.
ponderous[adjective]heavily labored and dull.
Many members of the congregation found themselves falling asleep during the long and ponderous sermon.
portal[noun]a doorway or entrance, especially a large and imposing one.
The prince and his retinue came on horseback through the castle's portal.
prevail[intransitive verb]to emerge as dominant (often followed by "over").
Fortunately, common sense seems to have prevailed over irrationality.
Optimism prevailed throughout the decade of the fifties.
propensity[noun]a natural or inborn tendency, aptitude, or preference (often followed by an infinitive or "for").
He always had a propensity to lie, even when he had no need to cover up anything.
You seem to have a propensity for getting into trouble.
reasonable[adjective]in accordance with clear thinking and good judgment.
reconnoiter[transitive verb]to go through or over (an area) so as to gain information about it, as for military or engineering purposes.
In preparation for the next day's advance, a squad was sent ahead to reconnoiter the area.
recount[transitive verb]to tell a history of events; relate; narrate.
The newscaster recounted her early years in television.
They recounted their adventures on their trip.
refute[transitive verb]to demonstrate the falseness or error of; disprove.
She refuted his argument with some well-documented evidence.
repeal[transitive verb]to withdraw, revoke, or make void, especially by official action or proclamation.
The parliament repealed the latest export tariff.
repercussion[noun](usually plural) a result or effect of an action or event, often occurring indirectly or unexpectedly.
The invasion caused repercussions over the entire region.
repertoire[noun]the stock or list of artistic pieces, such as dramatic or operatic roles, that a player or company of players is prepared to perform.
Oscar Wilde's famous play "The Importance of Being Earnest" is part of the repertoire of many theater companies.
reputable[adjective]known to be held in esteem; respected.
He would rather go to a reputable used car dealer than buy a car from a stranger.
resolve[transitive verb]to decide (something) firmly or earnestly, or to cause (someone) to do so.
Many of us resolve to exercise more at the beginning of each new year.
I resolved that I would never let myself be so deceived again.
The attack on Pearl Harbor resolved the United States to enter World War II.
sagacity[noun]the quality of having keen judgment and common sense; wisdom.
Her learnedness and sagacity made her a fine judge.
scourge[noun]someone or something that inflicts punishment or causes suffering or destruction.
The unfortunate population had already undergone the scourge of a cholera epidemic.
solemnity[noun]the condition or quality of being grave or serious.
The funeral was an occasion of great solemnity.
spectacle[noun]a visible, usually impressive thing or action, especially a public performance or display.
speculate[intransitive verb]to wonder or make a guess or guesses with respect to something.
We have no facts, so we can only speculate as to her motives.
I don't want to speculate about the nature of their relationship.
Would you like to speculate on the possibility of her running for governor next year?
statute[noun]a law made by a legislature, as opposed to one established by the courts.
States have different statutes concerning the age at which one can legally marry.
stoic[adjective]showing little or no reaction to painful or pleasant experiences; unmoved; impassive.
The defendant was stoic throughout his trial.
summarize[transitive verb]to be a concise statement of.
This paragraph summarizes our position.
systematic[adjective]involving or based on a method or plan; not random or chaotic.
Presentation of concepts in the textbook is systematic.
threshold[noun]the beginning of a new event, undertaking, or the like.
Poor leadership has brought the two countries to the threshold of war.
Having completed his degree, he was now on the threshold of a new life.
traverse[transitive verb]to go over, along, or through; cover or cross.
We traversed the county in one day.
The terrain was rough and we traversed only ten miles.
unnecessary[adjective]not required or essential; needless.
It's unnecessary to buy a new one if there's nothing wrong with the old one.
The more expensive models have unnecessary features.
utopia[noun](often capitalized) an imagined or proposed place or society that is ideal, especially in its laws, ethics, and treatment of humanity.
In his vision of utopia, there would be no inequality or poverty.
vagrant[noun]one who lacks a permanent home and wanders from place to place; nomad; tramp.
Vagrants are camping under the bridge to shelter themselves from rain.
venerable[adjective]deserving honor, respect, or reverence because of advanced age, noble character, or dignified position.
She was a venerable woman who helped thousands of people through her work.
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