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EST I – Literacy Test II 2021 M03 Academic Vocabulary

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EST I – Literacy Test II 2021 M03 Academic Vocabulary

EST I – Literacy Test II 2021 M03 Academic Vocabulary


adhere[intransitive verb]to stick or cling firmly, as by gluing (usually followed by "to").
The dust adhered to her skin.
adherence[noun]the act or condition of holding to or following closely.
The club demands strict adherence to its policy regarding guests.
affront[noun]an openly insulting deed or remark.
Being denied entrance to the party was an affront the celebrity would not soon forget.
amass[transitive verb]to gather or accumulate for oneself.
The owner of the steel mills amassed great wealth.
appreciate[transitive verb]to feel grateful for (something) or to (someone).
We very much appreciate your help with this matter.
He always appreciates students' being on time for their lessons.
His mother appreciates it when he remembers to send her a birthday card.
I appreciate that you haven't mentioned this to anyone.
She appreciates her father-in-law because he's always been very kind to her.
associate[transitive verb]to connect mentally, as ideas, memories, and the like.
People often associate the color pink with girls.
befall[transitive verb]to happen to.
Misfortune befell him in those years after his marriage.
bequeath[transitive verb]to leave or dispose of (property) by a will.
He bequeathed his entire estate to his daughter.
calamity[noun]an event causing extreme harm, suffering, or destruction; disaster.
chastise[transitive verb]to punish, often corporally.
The masters frequently chastised the students with a cane.
climax[noun]the point of highest interest or intensity in a series of increasingly important points or events.
The climax of his career was setting a world record.
complacent[adjective]contented with oneself or one's situation to a degree that prevents self-criticism, further progress, or appropriate response to signals of danger or risk.
He could have risen even higher in the government, but he had become complacent in recent years.
The people were warned of the dangers, but they were complacent toward them and did nothing to prepare themselves.
compound1[adjective]made up of two or more parts or elements.
Salt is a compound substance made up of sodium and chlorine.
compromise[noun]a settlement of differences by partial concession of demands by each party, or the result of such a settlement.
The two sides negotiated for several days before reaching a compromise.
conceal[transitive verb]to hide or keep hidden from sight.
He concealed the gift in his desk so that it would be a surprise.
This makeup is supposed to conceal your skin's flaws.
The safe is concealed behind that painting.
contemplate[transitive verb]to look at long and thoughtfully.
She contemplated each sculpture in turn.
contrast[transitive verb]to compare (two people or things) in order to make their differences clear.
The essay contrasted Japan's legal system with that of the United States.
corporation[noun]an association of persons recognized by law and authorized to carry out certain functions with powers independent of the individual members.
countenance[noun]facial expression or general appearance.
The nurse's merry countenance cheered the patients.
derive[transitive verb]to obtain or extract from an original source (usually followed by "from").
Many medicines have ingredients that are derived from plants.
From what source did you derive that information?
dilute[transitive verb]to make (a solution) thinner or less concentrated by adding more solvent.
discretion[noun]the freedom or authority to use one's own judgment.
You may come or not, at your own discretion.
distill[transitive verb]to subject (a substance) to heat to the point of vaporization, and then to cooling to produce condensation.
When you distill water, minerals are removed.
dominate[transitive verb]to control or govern by the use of power or influence; rule.
The Soviet Union dominated the smaller communist nations of Eastern Europe.
His authoritarian father dominated him to a stifling degree.
employ[transitive verb]to make use of; use.
We're studying the unique devices he employs in his poetry.
You would have to employ a microscope to be able to see these organisms.
epic[adjective]referring or pertaining to a long poem that celebrates a hero or heroes and recounts their deeds in a grand style.
exceed[transitive verb]to go beyond (what is required, expected, or considered reasonable).
He claimed that he was not exceeding the speed limit.
You shouldn't exceed the recommended dosage for this drug.
The weight of baggage may not exceed seventy pounds.
experimentation[noun]the act, process, or practice of running tests or trials.
In searching for cures, some early researchers did their experimentation with themselves as test subjects.
facet[noun]one of the small, flat, polished faces of a cut gemstone.
The many facets of this diamond make it sparkle in the light.
forbear[transitive verb]to keep or abstain from (an action or utterance).
I will forbear replying to that insult.
formidable[adjective]exceptionally difficult; daunting.
Building the pyramids was a formidable task.
gallant[adjective]courageous, spirited, or chivalrous.
The gallant knight set off to rescue his lady.
gender[noun]the sex of a person or animal.
People of both genders, male and female, enjoy horseback riding.
The hiring guidelines are designed to reduce discrimination based on gender.
graphic[adjective]of or related to pictorial or typographical representations such as photography, painting, and printing.
He is responsible for the graphic design of the magazine.
helm[noun]equipment used for steering a ship, especially a wheel or tiller.
The captain stood at the ship's helm.
hinder[transitive verb]to interfere with or obstruct the functioning or progress of.
Heavy chains hindered the elephant's movements.
His questions hindered my thought process.
His constant daydreaming is hindering his progress in school.
Objections from her staff hindered the principal's efforts to bring about change.
historian[noun]one who writes about or is an expert on history.
hypocrisy[noun]the practice or an instance of stating or pretending to hold beliefs or principles that one does not actually live by; insincerity.
The congregation could forgive the minister his misdeeds but not the hypocrisy of his sternly moralizing sermons.
illustrate[transitive verb]to explain or clarify by giving examples or presenting a graphic representation.
My father always used examples from his own life experience to illustrate his point.
The gym teacher illustrated how the move should be done by demonstrating it herself.
The drawing on the opposite page helped illustrate the concept.
impartial[adjective]not biased or prejudiced; even-handed or objective.
She was known to be an impartial judge, which was critical for a controversial criminal case like this.
He tried to make an impartial decision, but it was difficult when one of his own daughters was a candidate for the position.
impudent[adjective]tending to cause anger or irritation in others by bold disrespect.
The impudent young fellow tweaked my nose and called me a fool.
incline[intransitive verb]to move from or be angled away from a vertical or horizontal position; slant.
The road up the mountain inclines sharply.
inclusive[adjective]comprising or covering a great deal; comprehensive.
The textbook has a highly inclusive index that is very helpful.
incorrigible[adjective]incapable of being controlled or influenced for the better.
The parole board was convinced he was an incorrigible criminal and denied his parole once again.
indifference[noun]lack of interest, especially when interest is called for,expected, or hoped for.
When their elderly mother began to show indifference toward the things she had always cared about, the family began to worry about her.
He was excited about his proposal, but it was met with indifference at the committee meeting.
She infatuated with him, but his attitude toward her was one of complete indifference.
indiscriminate[adjective]lacking in judgment and discernment; making no distinctions.
Their indiscriminate obedience caused them to carry out inhuman acts.
ingenious[adjective]having or showing cleverness or creativity, especially in designing or in solving problems.
The solution was brought about by the work of an ingenious scientist.
innate[adjective]belonging to or existing in someone or some organism from the time of birth; inborn.
Shyness may be an innate characteristic in some human beings.
irritate[transitive verb]to anger or annoy.
Her petty complaints sometimes irritate her co-workers.
It irritates him that his wife works on the weekends.
It irritates me when you make that noise.
isolate[transitive verb]to set apart from other things or people.
The police isolated the murder suspect from the other prisoners.
We think we have isolated the single cause of this disease.
The island people are isolated from the mainland population.
justify[transitive verb]to demonstrate (something) to be true or valid.
You'll need solid evidence to justify your claim.
legislate[intransitive verb]to create a law or laws.
The fundamental purpose of the Congress is to legislate.
limitation[noun]that which confines or restricts.
The prisoners play outdoor games within the limitations of the prison grounds.
A sack race imposes a limitation to movement.
manipulate[transitive verb]to handle or operate skillfully with the hands.
He manipulated the clay to form a tiny sculpture.
Do you know how to manipulate the controls?
mere[adjective]being neither more nor better than what is specified.
I was told that she'd had some experience, but in fact she was a mere beginner.
The mere mention of his name filled her with fear.
They acted very politely toward him, but it was mere pretense.
She was not a goddess but a mere mortal.
metaphor[noun]a figure of speech in which a word or phrase is used to describe one thing in terms of another in a nonliteral way, such as "drowning in work".
mindful[adjective]careful; attentive (usually followed by "of").
Mindful of the difficulty of the terrain, he carried a pickaxe.
mock[transitive verb]to express scorn or contempt for; ridicule; deride.
The candidate mocked his opponent's stand on the environment.
Many physicians originally mocked the notion that disease could be caused by microbes.
moderate[adjective]keeping or kept within reasonable limits; not extreme or excessive.
a moderate drinker
moderate costs.
monarchy[noun]government by, or in the name of, a king or queen, whose power is either absolute or limited by a constitution.
The country returned to monarchy after the short-lived republic came to an end.
negate[transitive verb]to render ineffective or invalid; nullify.
Drinking alcohol partially negates the medicine's effect.
This statement negates what you said in your first paragraph.
nourish[transitive verb]to supply with food or other essential nutriments.
Mammals nourish their young with milk.
Rain nourishes the plants.
objectivity[noun]the quality of being unbiased or without prejudice.
I trust this news show because it reports the news with more objectivity than the others.
obstinate[adjective]holding stubbornly to one's own ideas or purposes; unwilling to change.
Their elderly mother was obstinate about staying in her own home and refused to even consider moving.
onslaught[noun]a forceful, often sudden, offensive maneuver; attack.
Hundreds of soldiers were killed or wounded in the enemy's onslaught.
paternal[adjective]of, concerning, or typical of a father.
Since our father died, my oldest brother has taken on the paternal role in our family.
pilfer[transitive verb | intransitive verb]to steal, especially trifling amounts or things of small value.
She caught her roommate pilfering her candy from her desk drawer.
plagiarize[transitive verb]to wrongfully and deliberately claim as one's own (the ideas, words, or the like) of someone else.
The professor recognized several passages in the student's paper and knew that they had been plagiarized.
policy1[noun]a set of principles that is used as a guide for action, especially in a government or business.
The company's policy is to fire an employee after two warnings about being late.
The government instituted a policy of restricting the money supply.
portray[transitive verb]to depict visually or verbally; create a picture of.
The media portrayed the mayor as a hero for his efforts to battle the disaster.
The stepmother is often portrayed as an evil character in fairy tales.
precede[transitive verb]to come before in time.
January precedes February.
Our flight preceded theirs by two hours.
Baseball games are usually preceded by the singing of the national anthem.
presently[adverb]in a short while; very soon.
Be patient; we will be dining presently.
progression[noun]the act of moving forward or onward.
The coffin-bearers marched in slow progression.
proportion[noun]a part or fraction of a whole.
What proportion of the students require special assistance?
A large proportion of the forest will be cut down.
propose[transitive verb]to present for consideration or adoption; suggest.
The committee proposed several changes to the existing laws.
They proposed that the city build a bike path in the downtown area.
She proposed changing the venue for the performance.
province[noun]one of the administrative divisions of a country or empire.
prudent[adjective]having or showing wisdom and caution in practical matters; sensible.
Being naturally prudent, she was not inclined to take such a risk.
Postponing the expansion was a prudent decision.
reclaim[transitive verb]to recover the use of (land areas) that can be drained, built up, or otherwise reconditioned.
These lands have been reclaimed from the desert and are now capable of growing crops.
repeal[transitive verb]to withdraw, revoke, or make void, especially by official action or proclamation.
The parliament repealed the latest export tariff.
restrain[transitive verb]to hold back or keep in check.
When the dog saw the squirrel, I couldn't restrain him.
You need to restrain your anger when you talk to the neighbors.
If there are snacks available, it's hard to restrain myself from eating them.
revert[intransitive verb]to return to a previous state, practice, belief, or the like.
After the conquerors withdrew, the tribes reverted to their former religion.
The untended garden reverted to a sea of weeds.
I've gained weight since I reverted to my old eating habits.
romance[noun]a love affair, or a depiction of one in a novel, story, or film.
saturate[transitive verb]to fill or soak so completely that nothing more can be absorbed.
The heavy rain saturated his clothes.
siege[noun]a military maneuver in which a fortification, such as a city or a fort, is surrounded, subjected to attack, and cut off from supplies or reinforcements in order to bring about complete surrender.
Many were killed in the siege of the fort.
The siege of Leningrad by Nazi Germany began in 1941 and ended in 1944.
similarity[noun]the state or quality of being like or alike; resemblance.
There was no similarity between this crime and the one last week.
The teacher was disturbed at the similarity of the two students' papers.
solemnity[noun]the condition or quality of being grave or serious.
The funeral was an occasion of great solemnity.
solicit[transitive verb]to try to obtain (business, recruits, donations, help, or the like) by persuasion, formal request, or pleading.
The caller was soliciting donations for the disaster fund.
More restaurants have been using radio advertising to solicit patronage recently.
The magazine often solicits feedback from readers.
I have never solicited his advice or his help.
solitude[noun]the condition of living or being by oneself; isolation.
spectacle[noun]a visible, usually impressive thing or action, especially a public performance or display.
stationary[adjective]not moving; still.
a stationary car.
statute[noun]a law made by a legislature, as opposed to one established by the courts.
States have different statutes concerning the age at which one can legally marry.
stoic[adjective]showing little or no reaction to painful or pleasant experiences; unmoved; impassive.
The defendant was stoic throughout his trial.
stratagem[noun]a plan or trick to deceive, surprise, or outwit an opponent, especially as a military maneuver.
The opossum's stratagem of playing dead discourages certain predators.
theoretical[adjective]relating to or consisting of an explanation based on abstract reasoning and speculation rather than facts and evidence; hypothetical.
Psychologists have been working to construct a theoretical model of memory storage and retrieval.
tolerable[adjective]capable of being put up with or endured.
Conditions were more tolerable in the north during the war because infrastructure remained intact.
treacherous[adjective]betraying or likely to betray trust; traitorous; faithless.
The treacherous officer betrayed his general.
unrelenting[adjective]continuing with the same intensity, force, speed, or the like; not decreasing or weakening.
They prayed that the storm would end soon, but it was unrelenting.
vagabond[adjective]having no permanent home; wandering from place to place; nomadic.
These vagabond traders made a few stops in the town each year.
withdraw[transitive verb]to take back, out, or away; remove.
The carpenter withdrew the nails from the old boards.
He withdrew all his money from his savings account.
The general made the decision to withdraw the troops from the area.
zeal[noun]intense enthusiasm for a person, ideal, cause, or the like.
She had the zeal of a new convert to the faith.
His zeal for physical fitness caused him to overdo his exercising.
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