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EST I – Literacy Test II 2020 M12 Academic Vocabulary

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EST I – Literacy Test II 2020 M12 Academic Vocabulary

EST I – Literacy Test II 2020 M12 Academic Vocabulary


accentuate[transitive verb]to emphasize; draw attention to.
Lipstick accentuates a person's lips.
The author accentuates the fact that hers is only one theory out of many.
Repeating the same information in every paragraph only accentuates this student's limited knowledge of what he's writing about.
accompany[transitive verb]to go along with or come with (someone or something)
The boss accompanied the new employee to her workstation.
A teacher's manual accompanies the textbook.
acquaint[transitive verb]to introduce, or to make familiar or accustomed to (usually followed by "with").
They went next door and acquainted themselves with their new neighbors.
She was eager to acquaint herself with the customs of her new country.
adjacent[adjective]near or next to; adjoining.
We are worried about the large dead tree on the property adjacent to ours; it could fall onto our house during a storm.
China is adjacent to India and many other countries.
affirm[transitive verb]to firmly declare (something), or to state or maintain (something) as true.
When questioned by the press, the superintendent affirmed his faith in the police department.
The expert affirmed that the fingerprints were identical.
allude[intransitive verb]to refer to indirectly or in passing (usually followed by "to").
We never discussed the issue of the inheritance, but she alluded to it several times that evening.
alteration[noun]the state or process of altering.
Making a movie out of the complicated novel required substantial alteration of the plot.
apparatus[noun]a machine or group of machines designed to accomplish a specific task.
"The iron lung" was a name given to an apparatus that enables patients to breathe.
apprehend[transitive verb]to catch and place under arrest.
The police apprehended the suspects.
assertion[noun]a declaration or statement, often without support or proof.
The reporter's bold assertion that the politician was lying surprised everyone in the press room.
assimilate[intransitive verb]to adapt and conform.
Adult immigrants tended to hang on to their language and traditional ways, whereas the children usually assimilated.
await[transitive verb]to wait for; look forward to.
I eagerly awaited my friend's visit.
barter[intransitive verb]to trade services or commodities without the use of money.
Neither of them had any money, so they agreed to barter.
belligerent[adjective]having or showing an eagerness to fight; aggressive; warlike.
More guards were called when the prisoner became belligerent.
He was expelled from school after he became belligerent toward one of his teachers.
bolster[transitive verb]to give support with a cushion or pillow.
The patient's back was bolstered so he could read in bed.
brood[intransitive verb]to ponder or deliberate, often moodily, a single subject (usually followed by "on" or "over").
She brooded over the problem all night.
He brooded on these new questions for several weeks.
calculate[transitive verb]to compute mathematically.
You made an error when you calculated the score.
If you calculate the cost of driving your car to work everyday, you'll find that it's much cheaper to ride the bus.
catalyst[noun]an agent that causes an interaction between persons or forces without being affected itself.
The verdict of the trial was the catalyst for the riot.
cite[transitive verb]to quote or refer to as proof or illustration.
His lawyer cited many cases where such a decision had been reached.
clarify[transitive verb]to make more understandable; make clear.
She clarified her objections to the plan.
compile[transitive verb]to form (a written work or list) by bringing together pieces of information, articles, documents, or the like.
They're compiling a recipe book, so they've asked each of us to submit one of our favorite recipes.
The agency thinks he's a spy and has compiled a dossier on him.
The publisher is compiling a glossary to accompany the textbook.
component[noun]a part or element of a whole; constituent.
One of the engine's components is damaged.
Vegetables are an important component of a healthy diet.
Oxygen and hydrogen are the chemical components that make up the water molecule.
comprehend[transitive verb]to understand or grasp the meaning of.
I've read this paragraph many times, but I still can't comprehend it.
No one comprehended the importance of this event at the time.
compute[transitive verb]to calculate by mathematical operations.
Now we'll compute the score and see who actually won.
When I computed the difference between how much money I was making and how much I was spending, I realized I was in trouble.
concede[transitive verb]to acknowledge the truth, justice, or propriety of; admit.
After some argument, he conceded her point.
I concede that my son was in the wrong, but I don't think he deserves suspension from school.
conclude[transitive verb]to bring to an end; finish or complete.
Let's conclude the meeting now and go to lunch.
The police are now concluding their investigation of the incident.
He's concluded his business in Washington and will be returning home.
conclusive[adjective]serving to reach a final answer or decision, or to settle.
The testimony of the two eye-witnesses was considered conclusive evidence of his guilt.
It was hoped that the experiment would provide answers, but the results were not conclusive.
This was the conclusive point that decided the debate.
concur[intransitive verb]to share the same opinion; agree.
We concur that this is not a simple matter, but we must act quickly nonetheless.
The specialist concurred with the primary care physician regarding the diagnosis.
I concur with your estimate of the damage.
condescend[intransitive verb]to act as if one were of superior rank or station, treating others as inferior; patronize.
Must you condescend to me, as if I were an idiot?
construct[transitive verb]to put together by assembling component parts; build.
The new library will be constructed on the site of the old one.
The students constructed models of various molecules.
consummate[adjective]of the highest order or degree.
With consummate ineptitude, the surgeon sewed the patient's severed finger on backwards.
contrary[adjective]totally different; opposite.
You and I hold contrary views.
The two boys headed off in contrary directions.
credible[adjective]believable or plausible.
The teacher allowed him to make up the exam because she thought his excuse was credible.
criticism[noun]the act of making judgments or criticizing.
Her constant criticism of her daughter eventually put a wedge between them.
The art instructor's criticism of the students' works was helpful to them.
debate[intransitive verb]to discuss or argue different points of a matter.
There is no use debating with them; they've already made up their minds.
deficient[adjective]lacking some essential part, element, substance, or characteristic.
Their diet is deficient in vitamin C.
She finds her daughter-in-law deficient in good manners.
The struggling nation is rich in natural resources but deficient in infrastructure.
With respect to piano skill, I'm sadly deficient.
delineate[transitive verb]to describe or portray in precise or vivid detail.
In her article, she delineated the plight of the homeless.
devious[adjective]not the straightest, most direct way; winding; roundabout.
He returned home by a devious route.
discipline[noun]training of the body or mind to bring about desired results, particularly orderliness and obedience.
The army uses various methods of discipline to prepare soldiers for fighting.
discredit[transitive verb]to harm the reputation of.
His opponent did her best to discredit him by bringing up embarrassing incidents from his past.
document[noun]a written or printed paper, often of a legal or official nature, that provides information, evidence, or proof of something, such as a birth certificate or marriage license.
You will need at least three documents to show proof of your identity.
The lawyer is preparing the documents, and we'll sign them tomorrow.
elixir[noun]a sweetened, aromatic solution of alcohol and water used as a vehicle for medicines.
The drug's active ingredients are now combined with the elixir.
elongate[transitive verb]to make longer; lengthen.
Stretching elongates the muscles.
epoch[noun]a distinct or notable period in human history.
The invention of the personal computer started a new epoch in information technology.
exceed[transitive verb]to go beyond (what is required, expected, or considered reasonable).
He claimed that he was not exceeding the speed limit.
You shouldn't exceed the recommended dosage for this drug.
The weight of baggage may not exceed seventy pounds.
exterior[adjective]on or related to the outside or outer side.
extract[noun]a condensation and concentration of a substance.
The coffee bread is flavored with almond extract.
factor[noun]something that has an influence on or is a partial cause of something that happens.
The element of surprise was an important factor in determining the outcome of the battle.
Several factors led to the weakening of the economy.
Her decision to quit was influenced by several factors, not just the fact that she was passed up for a promotion.
farce[noun]anything improbable, absurd, or empty of meaning; mockery; sham.
With just one candidate, the election seemed a farce to many people.
formidable[adjective]exceptionally difficult; daunting.
Building the pyramids was a formidable task.
herald[noun]a person who conveys or announces official news; messenger.
The herald announced the arrival of the king.
hypocrite[noun]one who states or pretends to hold beliefs or principles he or she does not actually practice.
A man who punishes his child for lying but at the same time lies on his tax forms is a hypocrite.
ignorant[adjective]lacking knowledge or education.
It is easier for corrupt leaders to control an ignorant population.
Many of the children grow up ignorant because they have no access to schools.
imminent[adjective]about to happen or likely to happen very soon.
In preparation for the king's imminent arrival, they let down the drawbridge to the castle.
The danger is imminent; you must leave immediately.
immobility[noun]the state or condition of not moving or being motionless.
We were deceived by their immobility into thinking they were asleep.
imply[transitive verb]to signal (a meaning) without directly stating such meaning; suggest.
Are you implying that I cheated?
She agreed to do it, but her tone implied resentment.
When she told him he dropped his candy wrapper, she was implying that he should pick it up.
These symptoms may imply a weak heart.
incessant[adjective]never ceasing; continual.
The incessant drone of a mosquito kept her awake half the night.
indicate[transitive verb]to show or point out.
The police officer asked her to indicate the man she thought was the attacker.
The results of the study indicate that their hypothesis was correct.
indignation[noun]righteous anger in response to something considered unjust or unworthy.
The insult to her family and her countrymen filled her with indignation.
influence[transitive verb]to have influence on; sway.
His friends influenced him to take up soccer.
Her arguments failed to influence her son's decision.
insert[transitive verb]to put or cause to be put in, into, or within.
Did anyone insert the plug into the socket?
I inserted four quarters in the parking meter, but nothing happened!
They were talking so fast that I couldn't insert my opinion.
I think you should insert more details into this paragraph.
interaction[noun]action each upon the other or others; reciprocal action, influence, or effect.
the group's social interaction.
interfere[intransitive verb]to be or come between with the effect of hampering or impeding (usually followed by "with").
His work interferes with his ability to spend time with his family.
Talking on the telephone can interfere with safe driving.
inundate[transitive verb]to cover or overspread with water, especially a very large amount; flood.
The floods inundated the entire coastal region.
invariable[adjective]not subject to change; consistently the same.
"Is your homework done?" was his mother's invariable response to any request he made to go out with friends.
irony[noun]a manner of using language so that it conveys a different or opposite meaning to that which is literally expressed in the words themselves. Irony is used in ordinary conversation and also as a literary technique, especially to express criticism or to produce humor or pathos.
"You obviously do all the work around here," she said with unmistakable irony.
liquidate[transitive verb]to pay off or settle (a debt or the like).
With the sale of their business, they had enough money to liquidate their debts.
logical[adjective]resulting from clear thinking; sound.
Her essay was very convincing as it was completely logical.
manifest[transitive verb]to show plainly; display; demonstrate.
The results of the treatment generally manifest themselves after only four days.
mire[noun]deep, heavy mud or soil.
The rain continued to pour and our car got stuck in the mire.
misconception[noun]an error in understanding; wrong notion or idea.
It is a common misconception that weight and mass are the same thing.
mutation[noun]a sudden, apparently abnormal change or alteration in a genetically determined structure, as opposed to gradual evolutionary change.
The disease is the result of a mutation in a particular gene.
A mutation has caused the mouse's short tail.
nonchalance[noun]cool confidence and unconcern; casual indifference.
My friends and I were nervous around females, but this guy had a nonchalance that amazed us.
The nonchalance of the dead woman's husband seemed suspicious to the police.
nonchalant[adjective]not showing excitement or anxiety; coolly confident, unflustered, or unworried;casually indifferent.
The first suspect was nervous and edgy, but the second was completely nonchalant.
objectivity[noun]the quality of being unbiased or without prejudice.
I trust this news show because it reports the news with more objectivity than the others.
oblige[transitive verb]to cause to feel bound to do something or to act in a certain way.
His conscience obliged him to take care of his elderly parents despite the hardship it involved.
Being given the job by his friend obliged him in a way that was uncomfortable for him.
ominous[adjective]indicating or threatening future evil or unpleasantness.
The black clouds looked ominous, so we paddled toward the shore.
The messenger conveyed an ominous warning.
onslaught[noun]a forceful, often sudden, offensive maneuver; attack.
Hundreds of soldiers were killed or wounded in the enemy's onslaught.
organism[noun]any single living being, such as an animal, plant, fungus, or bacterium.
The water sample contains numerous kinds of tiny organisms.
overabundance[noun]an excessive quantity or amount; more than is needed; surfeit.
Bread and flour prices fell that year when there was an overabundance of wheat.
partisan[adjective]devoted to or favoring a particular cause, group, political party, or the like.
Rather than voting according to her own conscience, the congresswoman voted in a partisan way.
pompous[adjective]showing or inclined to show an exaggerated air of dignity or importance.
The pompous butler looked down his nose at the casually-dressed visitor.
His mother is quite unassuming and down-to-earth, but his father is rather pompous.
potent[adjective]having strength; powerful.
The emperor was a potent leader who was able to bring about vast changes.
precede[transitive verb]to come before in time.
January precedes February.
Our flight preceded theirs by two hours.
Baseball games are usually preceded by the singing of the national anthem.
principle[noun]a law, doctrine, or assumption on which action or behavior is based.
Are these laws based on the principles of liberty and justice for all citizens?
prophetic[adjective]foretelling or revealing the future.
She had a prophetic dream in which she saw the ship sinking.
recount[transitive verb]to tell a history of events; relate; narrate.
The newscaster recounted her early years in television.
They recounted their adventures on their trip.
refute[transitive verb]to demonstrate the falseness or error of; disprove.
She refuted his argument with some well-documented evidence.
resort[noun]a place providing facilities for rest and relaxation to those on vacation.
revelation[noun]the act of making known or disclosing.
When will the revelation of the winner's name take place?
satirical[adjective]containing or marked by the use of parody or irony to ridicule or denounce human corruptness or folly.
The novel is a satirical work that caricatures government officials.
skeptical[adjective]having or showing doubt; questioning.
I was skeptical of the claim that the product could remove oil from any fabric.
Everyone else was convinced, but she remained skeptical.
stint[intransitive verb]to refrain from spending; to be sparing or frugal.
They stinted for years hoping to save enough for their children's education.
With respect to our birthday parties, our mother never stinted.
strive[intransitive verb]to try or work hard; exert oneself.
The athletes strove to improve their performance before the next Olympics.
She's striving to reach the top in her profession.
Leaders on both sides have been striving for a peaceful end to the conflict.
He continues to strive toward his goal of entering politics.
subdue[transitive verb]to overcome or conquer, as by military victory.
The Romans subdued the rebel forces.
subjective[adjective]affected or shaped by personal experience, beliefs, and feelings.
Good jurors will try not to be subjective.
sublime[adjective]exalted or noble; lofty.
This passage is written in sublime prose.
succession[noun]the act or process of following or coming after in sequence.
tendency[noun]the characteristic of being likely to feel or behave in a certain way.
I have a tendency to be shy at parties.
He'd had a tendency to tell lies even as a young child.
This clock has a tendency to run fast.
Babies have a tendency to cry when they're hungry or tired.
variation[noun]the act or process of changing, or the condition of being changeable.
During the spring, there is a great deal of variation in the temperature.
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