recent
Hot News

EST I – Literacy Test II 2020 M10 Academic Vocabulary

Home

EST I – Literacy Test II 2020 M10 Academic Vocabulary

EST I – Literacy Test II 2020 M10 Academic Vocabulary


abject[adjective]of the lowest or most wretched kind.
The villagers live in abject poverty.
abrupt[adjective]sudden and unexpected.
We were surprised by the abrupt change in the weather.
accentuate[transitive verb]to emphasize; draw attention to.
Lipstick accentuates a person's lips.
The author accentuates the fact that hers is only one theory out of many.
Repeating the same information in every paragraph only accentuates this student's limited knowledge of what he's writing about.
accompany[transitive verb]to go along with or come with (someone or something)
The boss accompanied the new employee to her workstation.
A teacher's manual accompanies the textbook.
acute[adjective]of great severity or intensity.
The patient is experiencing acute pain in the abdomen.
When the hunger pangs became acute, she allowed herself to eat a little.
affirm[transitive verb]to firmly declare (something), or to state or maintain (something) as true.
When questioned by the press, the superintendent affirmed his faith in the police department.
The expert affirmed that the fingerprints were identical.
aggregate[noun]a sum, combination, or composite of separable elements.
The aggregate of her life experiences lent her considerable wisdom.
Concrete is an aggregate composed of mineral elements mixed with cement.
ambivalence[noun]the presence of conflicting feelings, such as love and hate, toward a person, thing, or situation.
She had always thought she would be overjoyed at being offered such an opportunity; therefore, she was surprised at her own ambivalence.
ambivalent[adjective]of feelings and emotions, conflicting; pulling in opposite directions.
She had ambivalent feelings about her daughter's upcoming marriage.
anomalous[adjective]differing from the norm, standard, or common type or rule; abnormal.
Before the changes were made at the school, such high test scores had been anomalous.
argumentative[adjective]given to quarrels, debate, or violent clashes of opinion, often without a cause; contentious.
They were an argumentative couple, but they always seemed to work things out in the end.
arrears[plural noun]the state of being delinquent in the payment of financial obligations (usually preceded by "in").
His account was in arrears and the utilities company threatened to shut off his electricity.
ascertain[transitive verb]to come to know (some information) with complete certainty, especially through a process of investigation; determine.
The medical examiner has not yet ascertained the cause of death.
Somehow the press ascertained that the prince had plans to marry.
The police are trying to ascertain how the thief entered the building.
assertion[noun]a declaration or statement, often without support or proof.
The reporter's bold assertion that the politician was lying surprised everyone in the press room.
bias[noun]an inclination or preference that influences judgment; prejudice.
The report showed a strong bias in favor of the factory owners.
The decision reflected bias on the part of the judges.
bilious[adjective]ill-tempered; irritable.
He was in a bilious mood that morning and no one was spared his temper.
bolster[transitive verb]to give support with a cushion or pillow.
The patient's back was bolstered so he could read in bed.
brusque[adjective]impolitely abrupt in speech or actions; curt.
He'd planned to ask the clerk a number of questions, but her brusque manner intimidated him.
cascade[intransitive verb]to fall from one level to the next.
water cascading over the rocks.
claimant[noun]one who alleges something to be true or demands something as one's right.
The claimant needed to produce evidence to show that he had been wronged.
colleague[noun]someone who shares the same profession, work, or employer.
She was honored by her colleagues in the field with a special award.
The doctor brought up the question with some of his colleagues at the seminar.
conclude[transitive verb]to bring to an end; finish or complete.
Let's conclude the meeting now and go to lunch.
The police are now concluding their investigation of the incident.
He's concluded his business in Washington and will be returning home.
contrary[adjective]totally different; opposite.
You and I hold contrary views.
The two boys headed off in contrary directions.
contrive[transitive verb]to plan or devise cleverly or ingeniously.
The prisoner contrived his escape with great care.
She contrived an excuse that was wholly believable.
His friends contrived to utterly surprise him on his birthday.
criticism[noun]the act of making judgments or criticizing.
Her constant criticism of her daughter eventually put a wedge between them.
The art instructor's criticism of the students' works was helpful to them.
cumulative[adjective]becoming larger or greater by means of gradual addition.
The final exam is aimed at measuring students' cumulative knowledge of the subject studied over the school year.
debate[intransitive verb]to discuss or argue different points of a matter.
There is no use debating with them; they've already made up their minds.
delineate[transitive verb]to describe or portray in precise or vivid detail.
In her article, she delineated the plight of the homeless.
desolate[adjective]without those things necessary or desirable for life; bleak; barren.
a desolate island.
diligent[adjective]continually attending to and striving to achieve a goal; assiduous; persevering.
He's diligent about his studies and never turns in an assignment late or unpolished.
dingy[adjective]dirty or unkempt, as clothing or a living place; grimy.
discredit[transitive verb]to harm the reputation of.
His opponent did her best to discredit him by bringing up embarrassing incidents from his past.
disdain[noun]an attitude or display of contempt; scorn.
A divorced woman of that time was often criticized and treated with disdain.
embitter[transitive verb]to make bitter the feelings or attitude of (someone).
His father's harsh punishments served only to embitter him.
encounter[noun]a brief or unexpected meeting.
They were shaken by their encounter with the snake.
I had a lucky encounter with my doctor the other day at the post office, and she gave me some good advice.
endorse[transitive verb]to approve or give support to.
Doctors endorsed the legislation to ban smoking.
The newspaper endorsed the democratic candidate.
enlighten[transitive verb]to provide with previously lacking insight, information, or knowledge.
The lecture enlightened me about the power of the mind over the body.
epigram[noun]a short, pithy, often paradoxical sentence.
"Youth is wasted on the young" is a popular epigram.
equilibrium[noun]a state in which all acting forces cancel each other to create balance or stability.
After teetering, the gymnast somehow regained her equilibrium and stayed in the handstand.
erudite[adjective]having or showing a high level of scholarly knowledge; learned.
She was an erudite woman with an extraordinary knowledge of art, music, and literature.
exaggerate[transitive verb]to overstate (the size, value, importance, or other quality of a thing, person, or event).
He exaggerated his role in the rescue of the child.
She tends to exaggerate her troubles in order to get everyone's sympathy.
We are not exaggerating the degree of the problem, and we are asking for your immediate help.
facility[noun]a place planned or constructed for a specific activity.
The college is building a new sports facility on the north side of its campus.
finance[transitive verb]to provide the monetary resources for.
Tax money financed the new highway.
garment[noun]any piece of clothing.
Our factory produces men's garments, particularly shirts and pajamas.
The emperor's garments were made of pure silk.
This dress is a poorly-made garment.
gorge[noun]a narrow space between rocky cliffs, usually with a stream at the bottom; ravine.
We walked along the stream at the bottom of the gorge.
grandeur[noun]the quality of being majestic or splendid.
They were awed by the grandeur of the Alps.
hypocrite[noun]one who states or pretends to hold beliefs or principles he or she does not actually practice.
A man who punishes his child for lying but at the same time lies on his tax forms is a hypocrite.
ignite[transitive verb]to cause to begin burning; set on fire; kindle.
He ignited the charcoal with his lighter.
imply[transitive verb]to signal (a meaning) without directly stating such meaning; suggest.
Are you implying that I cheated?
She agreed to do it, but her tone implied resentment.
When she told him he dropped his candy wrapper, she was implying that he should pick it up.
These symptoms may imply a weak heart.
impudence[noun]the act or condition of being boldly disrespectful; insolence.
The student called the teacher a liar, and for his impudence he was sent to the principal's office.
incline[intransitive verb]to move from or be angled away from a vertical or horizontal position; slant.
The road up the mountain inclines sharply.
indicate[transitive verb]to show or point out.
The police officer asked her to indicate the man she thought was the attacker.
The results of the study indicate that their hypothesis was correct.
indignation[noun]righteous anger in response to something considered unjust or unworthy.
The insult to her family and her countrymen filled her with indignation.
indirect[adjective]not in a straight line, course, or route.
induce[transitive verb]to persuade or influence, as to a course of action.
There is nothing that could induce me to accept your offer.
inferior[adjective]subordinate in rank, position, or degree.
Compared with a general, a captain is an inferior officer.
inflection[noun]in grammar, the alteration in the form of words that allows the communication of information such as the gender, number, or case of a noun; the tense of a verb; or the degree of an adjective or adverb.
Many languages indicate that an action has occurred in past time through the inflection of verbs.
"Shake," "shakes," "shook," and "shaken" are forms of the same word but differ due to inflection.
inspire[transitive verb]to arouse feelings of exaltation in.
The music of Bach and Mozart continues to inspire us even after more than two hundred years.
intention[noun]a decided course of action; plan.
She went to college with the intention of studying biology.
landmark[noun]a feature of the landscape that serves as a point of reference, a guide for travelers, or a boundary marker.
luxuriant[adjective]of plants, growing densely and abundantly.
The tropical forest was luxuriant with broad-leaved plants.
manuscript[noun]a text as prepared by the author to submit for publication.
She sent the manuscript of her play to one publisher after another.
The editor returned his manuscript with a note suggesting that it was far too long.
mar[transitive verb]to damage or spoil, especially on the surface or face, but not severely.
Water marks marred the wood
The incident marred his good humor.
menace[noun]that which poses a danger or threatens injury or harm; threat.
Wild dogs have become a menace in the village.
The famous gangster Al Capone was considered a menace to society.
Members of the temperance movement considered alcohol a menace.
muse[intransitive verb]to ponder or meditate on something silently or at length.
My father looked through the photographs and mused about the old days.
objectivity[noun]the quality of being unbiased or without prejudice.
I trust this news show because it reports the news with more objectivity than the others.
oblige[transitive verb]to cause to feel bound to do something or to act in a certain way.
His conscience obliged him to take care of his elderly parents despite the hardship it involved.
Being given the job by his friend obliged him in a way that was uncomfortable for him.
obstinate[adjective]holding stubbornly to one's own ideas or purposes; unwilling to change.
Their elderly mother was obstinate about staying in her own home and refused to even consider moving.
optimism[noun]the belief that everything will turn out well, or that there are good aspects of every situation. (Cf. pessimism.)
He was always surprised at her optimism considering all the misfortunes that she had experienced in her life.
patron[noun]a person who buys the goods or services of a business establishment, especially a regular customer or client of a shop, hotel, restaurant, or the like.
The couple were steady patrons, and the owner was anxious to see that they were satisfied with their meal.
perceive[transitive verb]to become aware of by means of the senses.
The students are learning how the brain perceives sound.
The dog perceived a change in its owner and became alarmed.
If we smell something continually over a length of time, eventually we no longer perceive it.
She perceived something moving--perhaps a scorpion?--over the top of her blanket.
populate[transitive verb]to be residents of; inhabit.
The town is populated by two thousand people.
A large variety of birds populate the rain forest.
posterity[noun]all generations to come.
The monument was to last for posterity.
Their subhuman living conditions would have remained unknown had not one photographer recorded them for posterity.
postulate[transitive verb]to assert as something true, especially as a basis for reasoning.
If we postulate that early humans had this knowledge, then it seems likely that they would have developed tools to take advantage of it.
propose[transitive verb]to present for consideration or adoption; suggest.
The committee proposed several changes to the existing laws.
They proposed that the city build a bike path in the downtown area.
She proposed changing the venue for the performance.
qualify[transitive verb]to make eligible or competent, as for a job; certify as competent.
The course will qualify you to be an accountant.
I don't think that spending a week in Paris qualifies you as an expert on French culture.
recourse[noun]that which may be turned to for assistance, protection, or a way out of a difficult situation.
If they refuse to compensate you fairly, then your only recourse is a law suit.
The company was on the brink of financial collapse and had no recourse other than to lay off workers.
reference[noun]an allusion.
refine[transitive verb]to make pure or less coarse by removing unwanted elements.
Raw cane juice is refined to make sugar.
Wheat is refined by removing the natural bran surrounding the kernel.
reflex[adjective]denoting or pertaining to an involuntary physiological response or reaction to a stimulus.
reform[noun]the improvement of wrong or bad conditions, especially by political means.
regain[transitive verb]to win or get back, as after loss.
She worked hard to regain my trust.
render[transitive verb]to cause to become; make.
He tried to escape, but his broken leg rendered him helpless.
The accident rendered her a quadriplegic.
Beating the cream longer will render it butter.
resort[noun]a place providing facilities for rest and relaxation to those on vacation.
rivulet[noun]a tiny stream or brook; trickle.
The children had placed stepping stones across the rivulet.
simile[noun]a figure of speech in which two dissimilar things are likened, often linked by "like" or "as," as in, "March comes in like a lion and goes out like a lamb". (Cf. metaphor.)
The teacher considered "sparkling eyes like diamonds" to be a worn-out simile.
speculate[intransitive verb]to wonder or make a guess or guesses with respect to something.
We have no facts, so we can only speculate as to her motives.
I don't want to speculate about the nature of their relationship.
Would you like to speculate on the possibility of her running for governor next year?
speculative[adjective]of, pertaining to, or based on conjecture or theorizing.
Positive results of the treatment are speculative at this point; nonetheless, we feel we have reason to hope.
spite[noun]the malicious wish to hurt, bother, or humiliate someone.
subjective[adjective]affected or shaped by personal experience, beliefs, and feelings.
Good jurors will try not to be subjective.
subsist[intransitive verb]to stay alive or obtain the necessities of life (usually followed by "on").
They subsisted on roots and berries.
succession[noun]the act or process of following or coming after in sequence.
summarize[transitive verb]to be a concise statement of.
This paragraph summarizes our position.
supplement[noun]something necessary to complete a whole or make up for a deficiency.
The doctor recommended that I take a vitamin supplement.
torrent[noun]a heavy, turbulent flow of water, as in a rushing stream, a flood, or a downpour.
The torrent caused the old dam to break.
translate[transitive verb]to convert (written or spoken words) into another language.
Please translate this French poem into English.
How do you translate this sentence?
trivial[adjective]having little value or importance; insignificant.
There had been a few trivial complaints, but most people seemed to be happy with the library's renovation.
After reading many trivial student essays, the instructor was pleased to find one with a good deal of substance.
She thought her symptoms were trivial and had not believed it necessary to see a doctor.
unrelenting[adjective]continuing with the same intensity, force, speed, or the like; not decreasing or weakening.
They prayed that the storm would end soon, but it was unrelenting.
visage[noun]the face of a person, statue, or the like, especially in regard to its appearance or expression.
When I saw the sad visage of my mother, I knew something terrible had happened.
He dreamed of her beautiful visage with its dark and shining eyes.
yearn[intransitive verb]to have a strong desire, craving, or wish for something.
Allowed little freedom, she yearned for excitement.
After years at sea, he yearned to be with his family.
google-playkhamsatmostaqltradent