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Pronouns

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Pronouns

Pronouns


A pronoun takes the place of one or more nouns or pronouns.

An antecedent is the word or word group to which a pronoun refers.

EXAMPLES
  • The plate is chipped. I accidentally dropped it in the sink. [The pronoun it takes the place of plate. Plate is the antecedent of it.]
  • When Stephanie and Monica go hiking, they always follow the trails. [The pronoun they takes the place of the proper nouns Stephanie and Monica. Stephanie and Monica are the antecedents of they.]

Personal Pronouns

Personal Pronouns


A personal pronoun is a pronoun that refers to the one(s) speaking (first person), the one(s) spoken to (second person), or the one(s) spoken about (third person).

FIRST PERSON I, me, my, mine, we, us, our, ours
SECOND PERSON you, your, yours
THIRD PERSON he, him, his, she, her, hers, it, its, they, them, their, theirs

Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns

Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns


A reflexive pronoun refers to the subject of a verb. A reflexive pronoun completes the meaning of the verb or acts as an object of a preposition.
An intensive pronoun emphasizes its antecedent (the noun or pronoun to which the pronoun refers). Reflexive and intensive pronouns end in –self or –selves.

REFLEXIVE
  • Clara let herself in through the front door. [Herself refers to the subject Clara and completes the meaning of the verb let.]
  • The raccoon kept the fish for itself. [Itself refers to the subject raccoon and is the object of the preposition for.]
INTENSIVE
  • The manager himself made the delivery. [Himself emphasizes the antecedent manager.]
To determine whether a pronoun is reflexive or intensive, read the sentence aloud without the pronoun. Does the meaning of the sentence change without the pronoun? If the meaning of the sentence changes without the pronoun, the pronoun is reflexive. If the meaning of the sentence stays the same, the pronoun is intensive.

EXAMPLES
  • He prepared the salad himself. [Without himself, the meaning of the sentence does not change. Himself is intensive.]
  • He prepared the salad for himself. [The sentence doesn’t make sense without the pronoun. Himself is reflexive.]

Demonstrative Pronouns

Demonstrative Pronouns


A demonstrative pronoun points out a noun or another pronoun. Demonstrative pronouns are this, that, these, and those. This and that point out singular nouns and pronouns. These and those refer to plural nouns and pronouns.

EXAMPLES
  • Are these the only flavors available? [These points out a plural noun, flavors.]
  • This is the one that I built. [This points out a singular pronoun, one.]
The same words that are used as demonstrative pronouns can also be used as adjectives. When these words describe nouns or pronouns, they are called demonstrative adjectives.

PRONOUN
  • This is my favorite song. [This is a pronoun referring to song.]
ADJECTIVE
  • This song is my favorite. [This is an adjective describing which song.]

Interrogative Pronouns

Interrogative Pronouns


An interrogative pronoun introduces a question. Interrogative pronouns are who, whom, whose, which, and what.

EXAMPLES
  • Whose are these sandals?
  • What is the name of your company?
  • To whom should I address this letter?
NOTE

Some of the words used as interrogative pronouns can also function as adjectives. Remember that a pronoun takes the place of a noun or another pronoun. An adjective makes the meaning of a noun or a pronoun more specific.

PRONOUN
  • Which of these handbags belongs to her? [Which is an interrogative pronoun that refers to handbags, the object of the preposition of.]
ADJECTIVE
  • Which handbag belongs to her? [Which is an adjective describing handbag.]

Relative Pronouns

Relative Pronouns


A relative pronoun introduces a subordinate clause. Relative pronouns include that, which, who, whom, and whose.

EXAMPLES
  • The person who scores the most points wins the game. [The relative pronoun who introduces the subordinate clause who scores the most points.]
  • The milk that is in the refrigerator is fresh. [The relative pronoun that introduces the subordinate clause that is in the refrigerator.]
  • Brie, which is a type of cheese, is made in France. [The relative pronoun which introduces the subordinate clause which is a type of cheese.]
REMINDER

A subordinate clause is a group of words that contains a subject and its verb but does not express a complete thought. A subordinate clause cannot stand alone as a sentence.

SUBORDINATE CLAUSE
  • that darted under the board [The group of words contains a subject, that, and a verb, darted, but does not express a complete thought.]
SENTENCE
  • Did you see the salamander that darted under the board? [The subordinate clause is introduced by the relative pronoun that and is part of a complete sentence.]

Indefinite Pronouns

Indefinite Pronouns


An indefinite pronoun refers to a person, a place, a thing, or an idea that may or may not be specifically named. An indefinite pronoun may not have a specific antecedent.

COMMON INDEFINITE PRONOUNS
  1. all
  2. both
  3. few
  4. nobody
  5. several
  6. another
  7. each
  8. many
  9. none
  10. some
  11. any
  12. either
  13. more
  14. no one
  15. somebody
  16. anybody
  17. everybody
  18. most
  19. nothing
  20. someone
  21. anyone
  22. everyone
  23. much
  24. one
  25. something
  26. anything
  27. everything
  28. neither
  29. other
  30. such
EXAMPLES

  • Several of our neighbors signed the petition. [The indefinite pronoun Several refers to neighbors.]
  • Does anyone have a question? [Anyone has no specific antecedent.]
  • I have received replies from some of the people I invited. [Some refers to people.]

Pronouns Quiz

Pronouns Quiz

Label each bold pronoun as personal, reflexive, intensive, demonstrative, interrogative, relative, or indefinite.
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