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EST I – Literacy Test II 2021 M12 Academic Vocabulary

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EST I – Literacy Test II 2021 M12 Academic Vocabulary

EST I – Literacy Test II 2021 M12 Academic Vocabulary


abrade[transitive verb]to rub away by friction; erode.
Rubbing too hard will abrade the finish.
accord[noun]balanced interrelationship; agreement; harmony.
In accord with tradition, the bride wore white.
acquaint[transitive verb]to introduce, or to make familiar or accustomed to (usually followed by "with").
They went next door and acquainted themselves with their new neighbors.
She was eager to acquaint herself with the customs of her new country.
advantageous[adjective]offering benefit, gain, or profit.
Having experience in that particular area put her in an advantageous position.
Fluency in another language can be advantageous in the job market.
The hotel's being near the new convention center will be extremely advantageous.
The fog turned out to be advantageous to the advancing army, making its movement invisible to the enemy.
allegory[noun]a device in art or literature by which abstract moral or spiritual qualities are represented by concrete characters, things, and events.
In this use of allegory, the pearl stands for man's purest motives.
ambiguous[adjective]having two or more possible meanings or interpretations.
Because the statement was ambiguous, it was understood differently by different people.
amenity[noun](plural) social courtesies; agreeable manners; pleasantries.
The matter was urgent and there was no time for amenities.
amorphous[adjective]lacking definite form, shape, or character.
He realized that the amorphous mass in the boat was a dead jellyfish.
annihilate[transitive verb]to destroy completely; reduce to ruin.
The plague nearly annihilated the population of the villages.
The locusts annihilated the crops.
The bombing annihilated whole sections of the city.
argumentative[adjective]given to quarrels, debate, or violent clashes of opinion, often without a cause; contentious.
They were an argumentative couple, but they always seemed to work things out in the end.
artifact[noun]any object made by human beings, especially one of an earlier era.
The museum had an exhibit of ancient Mexican artifacts.
ascertain[transitive verb]to come to know (some information) with complete certainty, especially through a process of investigation; determine.
The medical examiner has not yet ascertained the cause of death.
Somehow the press ascertained that the prince had plans to marry.
The police are trying to ascertain how the thief entered the building.
assertion[noun]a declaration or statement, often without support or proof.
The reporter's bold assertion that the politician was lying surprised everyone in the press room.
attire[transitive verb]to dress, especially in fancy or elegant clothes.
We're wondering how we should attire ourselves for this wedding.
authoritative[adjective]accepted as correct, true, or reliable as a source of information; official.
You need to get your information from an authoritative reference work.
I was told this was an authoritative edition of Blake's poems.
await[transitive verb]to wait for; look forward to.
I eagerly awaited my friend's visit.
benevolent[adjective]desiring to do good for others; generous.
Thanks to many benevolent people, our fund-raiser has been a success.
The heiress was especially benevolent toward orphan children.
bosom[noun]the breasts of a human, especially of a woman.
cease[intransitive verb]to stop or come to an end.
After four days, the rain ceased.
circumstance[noun]an occurrence or fact associated with or having an impact on an event or situation.
What were the circumstances of his arrest?
The circumstances surrounding his death are still being investigated.
coincidental[adjective]of two things, occurring at the same time, or having some other correspondence, by chance and not as a result of a cause or motive.
The two suspected that their being seated next to each other at the table was not coincidental but part of a plan by their host.
comparative[adjective]gauged or estimated in relation to another or others;relative.
Although she has been training for five years, she is a comparative beginner.
compliant[adjective]willing to cooperate or agree; accommodating.
She was a compliant girl and did everything she was asked without complaint.
component[noun]a part or element of a whole; constituent.
One of the engine's components is damaged.
Vegetables are an important component of a healthy diet.
Oxygen and hydrogen are the chemical components that make up the water molecule.
comprehend[transitive verb]to understand or grasp the meaning of.
I've read this paragraph many times, but I still can't comprehend it.
No one comprehended the importance of this event at the time.
confound[transitive verb]to perplex or bewilder; confuse.
The last calculus problem confounded the students.
confront[transitive verb]to meet or face without evasion or avoidance.
He decided to confront his accuser.
She confronted the problem head-on.
conquest[noun]the act or process of conquering.
The army celebrated its easy conquest of the capital city.
The conquest of these lands brought disease and misery to the native populations.
constituent[adjective]serving as a component or part of something.
Hydrogen is a constituent element of water.
continuous[adjective]extending or enduring without pausing or stopping; unceasing; unbroken.
continuous noise
a continuous line.
convex[adjective]having a surface or outer edge that curves outward like the outside of a ball. (Cf. concave.)
crevice[noun]a narrow opening, as in vertical rock or a wall; crack; fissure.
An insect crawled out of the crevice in the rock.
deluge[noun]an inundation of the land by a great quantity of water; flood.
desolate[adjective]without those things necessary or desirable for life; bleak; barren.
a desolate island.
deteriorate[intransitive verb]to decline or become inferior in value or quality; debase.
Since she started smoking, her health has deteriorated.
Due to neglect, the condition of the property is deteriorating.
Our friendship has deteriorated as a result of our political differences.
The situation had deteriorated to the point where the two nations were on the brink of war.
deviation[noun]difference or divergence, as from a typical pattern, accepted social norms, political orthodoxy, or the like.
The critics said the theme of her new book represented a deviation from her standard themes.
discredit[transitive verb]to harm the reputation of.
His opponent did her best to discredit him by bringing up embarrassing incidents from his past.
disdain[noun]an attitude or display of contempt; scorn.
A divorced woman of that time was often criticized and treated with disdain.
disparage[transitive verb]to depreciate or belittle, especially in speech.
With the way he disparages that child, it's a wonder the boy has any self-confidence.
dissertation[noun]a formal and usually lengthy exposition in speech or writing, especially a detailed report of research by a candidate for a doctoral degree.
She took her time choosing a topic for her dissertation.
dormant[adjective]asleep or seemingly asleep; sluggish.
The smell of bacon woke the dormant hounds.
When their father looked in, the children lay dormant in their beds.
duplicate[noun]an exact copy of an original.
duration[noun]the interval of time during which something exists or proceeds.
He slept for most of the duration of the opera.
encase[transitive verb]to enclose.
The exotic butterfly specimens were encased in glass.
engage[transitive verb]to gain or hold the interest of; occupy.
The controversial subject engaged their attention.
enhance[transitive verb]to heighten, improve, or increase, as in quality, value, attractiveness, or reputation.
Herbs enhance the flavor of the meat.
Putting in a swimming pool will enhance the value of the property.
His new stylish haircut and clean-shaven face enhanced his appearance.
Winning this important case enhanced her reputation as a lawyer.
enlighten[transitive verb]to provide with previously lacking insight, information, or knowledge.
The lecture enlightened me about the power of the mind over the body.
enumerate[transitive verb]to name or list one by one.
She began to enumerate all my faults, so I left the room.
exaggerate[transitive verb]to overstate (the size, value, importance, or other quality of a thing, person, or event).
He exaggerated his role in the rescue of the child.
She tends to exaggerate her troubles in order to get everyone's sympathy.
We are not exaggerating the degree of the problem, and we are asking for your immediate help.
excerpt[noun]a short passage taken from a written work, film, or the like.
facet[noun]one of the small, flat, polished faces of a cut gemstone.
The many facets of this diamond make it sparkle in the light.
fetid[adjective]having a foul odor; stinking.
She opened the window of the sickroom to let the fetid air escape.
flank[noun]the part of a human or animal between the hip and the ribs on either side of the body.
foreshadow[transitive verb]to signal or indicate beforehand; presage; prefigure.
The character's confession of his fear of confinement foreshadows his eventual imprisonment at the end of the novel.
The nation's invasion of its weak neighbor foreshadowed its later massive-scale attacks against the other nations in the region.
gale[noun]a strong wind, especially one of about thirty to sixty miles per hour.
The tiny sailboat was lost in the gale.
graphic[adjective]of or related to pictorial or typographical representations such as photography, painting, and printing.
He is responsible for the graphic design of the magazine.
homogeneous[adjective]having all parts of the same or a similar type.
The influx of immigrants and refugees into the small nation has transformed what was once a homogeneous population.
ignorant[adjective]lacking knowledge or education.
It is easier for corrupt leaders to control an ignorant population.
Many of the children grow up ignorant because they have no access to schools.
immaculate[adjective]free from any dirt or stain; completely clean.
She scrubbed the dress and bleached it until it was immaculate.
indifference[noun]lack of interest, especially when interest is called for,expected, or hoped for.
When their elderly mother began to show indifference toward the things she had always cared about, the family began to worry about her.
He was excited about his proposal, but it was met with indifference at the committee meeting.
She infatuated with him, but his attitude toward her was one of complete indifference.
indirect[adjective]not in a straight line, course, or route.
ineffective[adjective]producing little or none of the desired or intended impact.
Unfortunately, the new drug was found to be ineffective for treating the disease.
influence[transitive verb]to have influence on; sway.
His friends influenced him to take up soccer.
Her arguments failed to influence her son's decision.
intellect[noun]the faculty of reasoning and understanding, especially as distinct from emotion or will.
The professor is well-known for his extraordinary intellect but also for his cold and impatient manner with students.
The tests attempt to measure the intellect of young children.
intention[noun]a decided course of action; plan.
She went to college with the intention of studying biology.
interval[noun]the period of time between two events or situations.
He was born during the interval between the two world wars.
invariably[adverb]without ever a change; on every occasion.
Invariably, you're on hold for ages before you can get through to make an appointment.
She's invariably late to work on Mondays.
invigorate[transitive verb]to fill with energy, strength, or life.
He'd been bored with his work, but this new project invigorated him.
irony[noun]a manner of using language so that it conveys a different or opposite meaning to that which is literally expressed in the words themselves. Irony is used in ordinary conversation and also as a literary technique, especially to express criticism or to produce humor or pathos.
"You obviously do all the work around here," she said with unmistakable irony.
irregular[adjective]uneven in shape, arrangement, surface, or the like.
These handmade bowls are slightly irregular in shape.
The wall has an irregular surface.
leer[intransitive verb]to give a sideways or nasty look or smile suggestive of malicious or sexual thoughts.
She turned to see that he was leering at her.
literacy[noun]ability to read or write.
Literacy is a primary goal of the educational system.
The rate of literacy varies from nation to nation.
manifest[transitive verb]to show plainly; display; demonstrate.
The results of the treatment generally manifest themselves after only four days.
membrane[noun]a thin, flexible, tensile layer of tissue that separates, connects, lines, or covers various structures, such as organs, in living organisms.
Membranes connect the toes of frogs.
monotonous[adjective]uninteresting due to lack of variation; tedious.
Shredding papers can be a monotonous job.
morbid[adjective]in an unhealthy, gloomy mental state; preoccupied with sickness, abnormality, or death.
He'd become morbid since his friend's death, speaking little and spending more and more time at the cemetery.
mutilate[transitive verb]to sever or destroy a limb or other essential part of (a person or animal).
paucity[noun]smallness of number or amount; scarcity.
The country's development has been hindered by a paucity of resources.
pavilion[noun]a light, often open-sided building used for shelter or recreation, as in a park.
They rented the large pavilion in the park for the company picnic.
Each pavilion at the state fair had a different band playing.
peerless[adjective]having no equal; unmatched in excellence.
In her time, she was a peerless soprano.
premonition[noun]an advance sign or warning; forewarning.
Smoke in the weeks before was a premonition of the volcano's eruption.
presume[transitive verb]to take as a matter of fact without questioning or without proof; take for granted; assume.
He presumed that his girlfriend would help him with the project.
She was wearing a white coat, so I presumed she was the doctor.
prevalent[adjective]generally accepted; pervasive; widespread.
These surgical techniques were already prevalent at the turn of the century.
That a woman's proper place was in the home was a prevalent attitude during the 1950s.
prototype[noun]an original model on which later stages or forms are based or developed.
The company made several improvements to its prototype before launching their new model car.
redirect[transitive verb]to guide to a different destination or by a different route.
Because of the storm, their flight was redirected to St. Louis.
region[noun]a large continuous space or area.
Each region of the country has its own accent or dialect.
A snowstorm hit the region very hard over the weekend.
remnant[noun]a quantity, piece, or part that is left over or remains.
She made soup with the remnants of the roast chicken.
renew[transitive verb]to restore to original or near-original condition.
The polish will renew the wood.
replicate[transitive verb]to repeat or duplicate.
It was difficult to replicate the experiment because of all the variables.
respiration[noun]the act of breathing.
romance[noun]a love affair, or a depiction of one in a novel, story, or film.
ruminate[intransitive verb]to think at length; meditate.
They were waiting for an answer but he needed more time to ruminate on the matter.
sole1[adjective]single and alone, not one among others; only.
She was the sole survivor of the crash.
Was that the sole reason you came here?
Revenge was their sole aim in committing this terrible crime.
The machine's sole function is to clean the air.
spite[noun]the malicious wish to hurt, bother, or humiliate someone.
succession[noun]the act or process of following or coming after in sequence.
summarize[transitive verb]to be a concise statement of.
This paragraph summarizes our position.
systematic[adjective]involving or based on a method or plan; not random or chaotic.
Presentation of concepts in the textbook is systematic.
tranquil[adjective]free from turmoil, disruption, noise, or agitation; calm, steady, or peaceful.
In tranquil times before the war, this burned-out building had been a theater.
She longed to get away to a tranquil place where she could forget about her hectic schedule and daily vexations at work.
unyielding[adjective]hard; firm; resistant to pressure or force.
Their progress through the passage was halted by an unyielding wall of rock.
zenith[noun]the highest point; climax; peak.
The popularity of the band was at its zenith in the late sixties.
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