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EST I – Literacy Test II 2021 M10 Academic Vocabulary

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EST I – Literacy Test II 2021 M10 Academic Vocabulary

EST I – Literacy Test II 2021 M10 Academic Vocabulary

abound[intransitive verb]to be found or available in a large amount or number.
Rabbits abound in these woods.
accord[noun]balanced interrelationship; agreement; harmony.
In accord with tradition, the bride wore white.
acknowledge[transitive verb]to admit or recognize the truth, existence, fact, or validity of.
The professor was forced to acknowledge that the student had been correct after all.
He refused to acknowledge the boy as his son.
The city's orchestra is acknowledged to be one of the world's finest.
At first, she did not acknowledge being acquainted with the man.
The neighbor finally acknowledged having witnessed the crime.
adamant[adjective]unlikely to change in response to any request or argument; firmly decided or fixed; unyielding.
He was adamant in his refusal to join any political party.
I thought I could change her mind, but she was adamant about her decision.
advert[intransitive verb]to direct the attention by comment or remark.
The effects of the illness, to which I adverted earlier, now became apparent to his colleagues.
alcove[noun]a separate or recessed part of a room that is partly enclosed.
We like to have breakfast in the little alcove off the kitchen.
apparatus[noun]a machine or group of machines designed to accomplish a specific task.
"The iron lung" was a name given to an apparatus that enables patients to breathe.
apparition[noun]a ghostly image; phantom; specter.
He thought he saw an apparition and ran terrified from the room.
ascertain[transitive verb]to come to know (some information) with complete certainty, especially through a process of investigation; determine.
The medical examiner has not yet ascertained the cause of death.
Somehow the press ascertained that the prince had plans to marry.
The police are trying to ascertain how the thief entered the building.
assertive[adjective]forward or aggressive in speech or action.
To make them listen, you'll need to be more assertive.
avid[adjective]characterized by great enthusiasm or zeal.
As an avid fan of baseball, he watches every game.
She's always been an avid reader and seems to have read everything and to know everything.
belated[adjective]too late; tardy.
His belated apologies did not blunt her anger.
bog[noun]an area of soft, wet earth and decayed vegetation; marsh.
Bogs are suitable for growing cranberries.
bosom[noun]the breasts of a human, especially of a woman.
bower1[noun]a pleasant, secluded alcove or shelter created by leafy trees or shrubbery.
The couple sat in the bower, enjoying the scent of roses and honeysuckle.
brawl[noun]a noisy fight or argument.
A brawl broke out between the police and the demonstrators, and many people were injured.
caustic[adjective]bitingly critical.
Her mother-in-law's caustic comments about her housekeeping always incensed her.
cease[intransitive verb]to stop or come to an end.
After four days, the rain ceased.
civilization[noun]an advanced state of development of a society as judged by such things as having a complex system of government and laws, use of a written language, and the keeping of written records.
Fertile land and an abundant water supply were what made civilization possible in the region.
climate[noun]the weather conditions most prevailing in a place, averaged over several years.
Antarctica has a cold climate.
compact1[transitive verb]to consolidate or compress.
This machine compacts soda cans as the first step of the recycling process.
comparative[adjective]gauged or estimated in relation to another or others;relative.
Although she has been training for five years, she is a comparative beginner.
complement[transitive verb]to make a fine accompaniment to, or to complete, perfect, or bring into perfect balance.
My father is outgoing and my mother is shy, and they complement each other in many other ways as well.
This wine complements the fish very nicely.
conjunction[noun]in grammar, a word such as "and," "while," or "because" that connects words, phrases, clauses, or sentences.
consequently[adverb]as a result; therefore; accordingly.
I couldn't sleep last night and consequently was tired all day today.
The soldiers were not prepared for another attack; consequently, they were unable to adequately defend themselves.
constituent[adjective]serving as a component or part of something.
Hydrogen is a constituent element of water.
constrict[transitive verb]to pull or squeeze in; make narrower or smaller; tighten.
Fear constricted her throat.
contradict[transitive verb]to assert the opposite of; deny the truth of.
These two statements contradict each other, so I don't understand your point.
Unfortunately, the facts contradict your theory.
dainty[adjective]small and delicate.
In her hand she held one dainty blossom.
We drank small amounts of tea in my grandmother's dainty cups.
Taking dainty steps, she entered the room without a sound.
dupe[noun]a gullible person; one who can be readily misled or fooled.
They took him for a dupe, but he didn't fall for their rather devious scheme.
duration[noun]the interval of time during which something exists or proceeds.
He slept for most of the duration of the opera.
dwell[intransitive verb]to think about, be concerned with, or remain attentive to (a particular thing) at length or habitually (often followed by "on" or "upon").
Let's not dwell on this point
You must not dwell on past failures.
enigmatic[adjective]puzzling, mysterious, or inexplicable.
His enigmatic response to my question about his wife made me wonder if the two might have separated.
excerpt[noun]a short passage taken from a written work, film, or the like.
expel[transitive verb]to put or drive out forcibly.
The pierced balloon expelled its air.
export[noun]the act or practice of sending goods abroad for sale or trade.
The export of fruits is important to the Mexican economy.
fallacy[noun]a false or misleading idea or notion, especially one that is commonly held.
It is a fallacy that simply being cold can cause one to catch a cold; there is always an infectious agent involved.
fictional[adjective]existing only in a story or novel; made-up or invented.
A fictional town is the setting of this historically-based novel.
graphic[adjective]of or related to pictorial or typographical representations such as photography, painting, and printing.
He is responsible for the graphic design of the magazine.
harmonious[adjective]characterized by agreement or accord.
The relationship between the sisters was never harmonious, but now they weren't even speaking to each other.
heroic[adjective]appropriate to or fitting the character of a hero.
Volunteers put in a heroic effort to rescue survivors.
historian[noun]one who writes about or is an expert on history.
hospitable[adjective]open and receptive.
The elders in the community were not hospitable to new ideas.
import[noun]something imported from another country.
They've always driven American cars, but we've always bought imports.
incur[transitive verb]to become liable for or bring upon oneself (usually some unwanted or harmful consequence).
He incurred an enormous gambling debt.
The teenager incurred his mother's anger by telling her an outrageous lie.
influence[transitive verb]to have influence on; sway.
His friends influenced him to take up soccer.
Her arguments failed to influence her son's decision.
inspire[transitive verb]to arouse feelings of exaltation in.
The music of Bach and Mozart continues to inspire us even after more than two hundred years.
interval[noun]the period of time between two events or situations.
He was born during the interval between the two world wars.
inveterate[adjective]persisting in a habit, action, feeling, or the like.
She was an inveterate gossip and could never resist passing on whatever scuttlebutt she chanced to hear.
inward[adverb]in or toward the inside or center.
isolate[transitive verb]to set apart from other things or people.
The police isolated the murder suspect from the other prisoners.
We think we have isolated the single cause of this disease.
The island people are isolated from the mainland population.
lateral[adjective]of, from, pertaining to, or in the direction of a side or sides.
In chess, the queen can move in both lateral and diagonal directions as well as forward and back.
The new job position represented what she felt was a lateral move and not a promotion.
literacy[noun]ability to read or write.
Literacy is a primary goal of the educational system.
The rate of literacy varies from nation to nation.
mite1[noun]one of several tiny, often parasitic arachnids.
monotonous[adjective]uninteresting due to lack of variation; tedious.
Shredding papers can be a monotonous job.
mystical[adjective]spiritually powerful, significant, or symbolic.
Seeing the figure appear in the darkness was for her a mystical experience.
oblique[adjective]not direct or straightforward in intent, means, or achievement; indirect or devious.
He made an oblique reference to his own accomplishments.
orator[noun]a person who delivers a public speech, or one skilled at formal public speaking.
A skilled orator can have a profoundly inspirational effect on an audience.
partition[noun]that which serves to separate or divide, especially a wall or partial wall that separates parts of a room.
The partition in the basement separates the laundry room from the storage area.
perceive[transitive verb]to become aware of by means of the senses.
The students are learning how the brain perceives sound.
The dog perceived a change in its owner and became alarmed.
If we smell something continually over a length of time, eventually we no longer perceive it.
She perceived something moving--perhaps a scorpion?--over the top of her blanket.
perfection[noun]the state or condition of being without fault or flaw.
The orchestra practiced the piece to a level that was near perfection.
pervade[transitive verb]to spread or be present everywhere in.
An air of optimism pervaded the capital.
The smell of tropical flowers pervaded the air.
Visions of her still pervade his thoughts and dreams.
Alienation is a theme that pervades modern literature.
pessimistic[adjective]tending to expect unfavorable outcomes.
In general, I'm pessimistic and don't see things changing for the better.
Her husband feels confident that she'll get the promotion, but she remains pessimistic.
philosophy[noun]the study of the nature and principles of knowledge, truth, existence, and moral and aesthetic values.
Socrates and Plato made important contributions in the area of philosophy.
plentiful[adjective]existing in or producing large amounts or quantities; abundant.
portray[transitive verb]to depict visually or verbally; create a picture of.
The media portrayed the mayor as a hero for his efforts to battle the disaster.
The stepmother is often portrayed as an evil character in fairy tales.
posterior[adjective]located behind or toward the back of something.
The pituitary gland consists of two lobes, a larger front lobe and a smaller posterior lobe.
This insect's posterior legs are shorter than its medial and front legs.
premise[noun]a proposition that forms the basis for an argument or a conclusion.
Your conclusion is based on a false premise.
The researchers base their argument on the premise that dinosaurs had already become extinct by this time.
propensity[noun]a natural or inborn tendency, aptitude, or preference (often followed by an infinitive or "for").
He always had a propensity to lie, even when he had no need to cover up anything.
You seem to have a propensity for getting into trouble.
prosaic[adjective]straightforward and plain; unimaginative; dull.
Compared with his earlier, delightfully inventive work, his second novel was disappointingly prosaic.
prudent[adjective]having or showing wisdom and caution in practical matters; sensible.
Being naturally prudent, she was not inclined to take such a risk.
Postponing the expansion was a prudent decision.
rambunctious[adjective]wildly or uncontrollably active; difficult to control; boisterous.
The children were tired of being in the car and were becoming rambunctious.
recount[transitive verb]to tell a history of events; relate; narrate.
The newscaster recounted her early years in television.
They recounted their adventures on their trip.
region[noun]a large continuous space or area.
Each region of the country has its own accent or dialect.
A snowstorm hit the region very hard over the weekend.
reject[transitive verb]to refuse to accept, grant entry to, acknowledge, or act upon.
They rejected the shipment, as the goods were damaged.
The university rejected him because his test scores were too low.
She rejected the company's job offer.
remnant[noun]a quantity, piece, or part that is left over or remains.
She made soup with the remnants of the roast chicken.
resent[transitive verb]to feel bitterness, displeasure, or indignation toward or about.
I resent his patronizing attitude towards me.
She has always resented her sister for leaving her to care for their parents alone.
His sisters resented that he inherited a much greater part of the property.
I resent his butting into my affairs.
He resented their treating him as if he were some kind of servant.
respiration[noun]the act of breathing.
reverie[noun]a state of daydreaming, reminiscing, or musing.
He was caught up in reverie and didn't hear the question she'd asked him.
rustic[adjective]of, occurring, or living in a rural area.
They'd rather live in a rustic setting than in a city or suburbia.
There is often a lot of physical work involved in rustic living.
sculpture[noun]any such artistic image.
seclude[transitive verb]to cause to be kept away from other people or activity.
The police secluded the witness for her protection.
sequester[transitive verb]to remove into protection and isolation; seclude.
He sequestered himself to avoid publicity.
simile[noun]a figure of speech in which two dissimilar things are likened, often linked by "like" or "as," as in, "March comes in like a lion and goes out like a lamb". (Cf. metaphor.)
The teacher considered "sparkling eyes like diamonds" to be a worn-out simile.
spacious[adjective]having ample room.
There is a spacious garden at the back of the house.
The bedrooms are small, but the living room is quite spacious.
sublime[adjective]exalted or noble; lofty.
This passage is written in sublime prose.
subtlety[noun]the quality or condition of being difficult to detect or define.
The subtlety of the spices used in the soup allows the flavors of the vegetables to come through.
Her husband loves slapstick comedy, but she prefers comedy with a bit more subtlety.
summarize[transitive verb]to be a concise statement of.
This paragraph summarizes our position.
sustain[transitive verb]to provide with the basic necessities of life.
They don't earn enough money from these jobs to sustain themselves and their families.
synthesis[noun]the combining of discrete elements into a unified compound or entity, or the unified whole formed by such a combining.
Her newest work of art is a synthesis of all her techniques.
tangible[adjective]capable of being touched or perceived by touch.
An apple is tangible whereas an idea is not.
tarry1[intransitive verb]to delay or postpone starting or acting; linger.
If you tarry much longer, you won't finish in time.
tolerable[adjective]capable of being put up with or endured.
Conditions were more tolerable in the north during the war because infrastructure remained intact.
tranquillity[noun]the condition or quality of being peaceful, untroubled, or calm; serenity.
As she sat looking at the still waters of the lake, she felt tranquility.
trend[noun]a general course, direction, or tendency.
The trend toward obesity continues in many countries.
Studies show that standards of living are on a downward trend.
A trend toward living together before marriage began some decades ago.
unnecessary[adjective]not required or essential; needless.
It's unnecessary to buy a new one if there's nothing wrong with the old one.
The more expensive models have unnecessary features.
vengeance[noun]injury or damage done to a person in return for injury or damage inflicted by him or her; retribution.
He threatened vengeance on the men who shot his father.
vicinity[noun]an area or district near or around a particular spot; somewhere nearby.
The court house is located in the vicinity of the town hall.
Is there a police station in this vicinity?
No one else was in the vicinity when the crime occurred.
vouch[intransitive verb]to affirm or certify someone or something to be true, truthful, genuine, or correct (usually followed by "for").
The witness vouched for the defendant's good character.
I'm willing to vouch for him because I've never known him to lie.
whimsical[adjective]characterized by or resulting from a sudden desire or fancy.
He had to admit that it was a whimsical decision, not based on any clear logic or need.
The design of this vast mansion was whimsical, with its numerous odd turrets, balconies, and towers.
Punishments meted out by the tyrant were whimsical and had little to do with the severity of the crime.
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